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Differences in content…………………………………………… Polarity of mystical death-divine nativity……………………. To rise with Jesus triumphant in heaven risorgere con Gesu trionfante nel Cielo ……………………………………………………………… The resurrection as an implicit and fundamental principle of the spiritual teaching of St.
Sources……………………………………………………………………… Literature on St. Paul of the Cross………………………………………… General literature…………………………………………………………… Abbreviations………………………………………………………………… 6 FOREWORD This book is based on research accepted by the Catholic Faculty of Theology of Regensburg University as a dissertation in the summer semester of the year In order that it be published in German it was slightly modified in some places, and some additional revisions were made for the English edition.
I express my gratitude especially to my professors J. Cardinal Ratzinger and the late J. Auer, who supervised this work by means of gentle and treasured advice in , the year of its first publication in German. I would also like to express my gratitude to my fellow religious and to my former superior, Fr.
Andreas Schmidbauer, C. I thank, too, all who have cooperated in preparing this text for its publication in English. Eugene Selzer, S. Philip C. Fischer, S. Thomas F. Thomas McGonigle, O. Silvan Rouse, C. Mary Frances Lavin, C. Mary Veronica Loring, C.
Martin Bialas, C. This is a good omen about the status of ecumenism, even though such a collaboration is no longer an unusual occurrence in Germany today. What is important about this book by Fr. Martin, however, is its subject matter; the mysticism of the passion of Christ in St. I admit with pleasure that a new ecumenical dimension was opened for me when, in October , I was invited to participate in an International Congress on La Sapienza Della Croce Oggi the wisdom of the cross today organized by the Passionist Order in Rome.
The lectures, discussions, life in the monastery, and writings of the founder of this Congregation all showed me how deeply ecumenical community is engraved in the heart of Christian piety and in the core of Christian belief in the Crucified; this ecumenical longing has always been and will ever remain, despite all our divisions and misunderstandings.
In order to learn this, it is profitable to listen to the voices of the great theologians of the cross. Paul of the Cross is one of these. Unfortunately he is unknown in Germany, especially in the Evangelical Church. Notwithstanding, he does have something to say. We must express our gratitude to Fr. Martin, because he is the man who has presented this first comprehensive and scientific monograph about St. We must thank him, too, that — like the founder of the Passionists — he writes in simple language and with a good style.
Historians and theologians are not the only ones who will benefit 8 from this book. Whosoever ponders the passion of Christ will read this monograph with benefit. The significance of the mysticism movements at that time has often been overlooked.
Nevertheless, they cut right across the confessional lines of the churches and captured the attention of the educated as well as of the masses. They were ecumenical, and they were popular. Both elements are important in this context. To begin his study of St. Paul of the Cross, the author first directs our attention to the spiritual and religious climate of eighteenth century Italy. Paul of the Cross and shows that, underlying the influence of both contemporary French and Spanish mysticism, there appeared again and again the impact of Tauler, with his exceedingly influential sermons.
For example, Tersteegen did not part with the institutional Church but participated by way of soulsearching, writing letters, and composing hymns dealing with the interiorization of faith. Tersteegen, also like Paul, longed for a community but was not able to find it in the parishes of his Reformed Church. His piety and his theology of mystical experience leaped over confessional lines and overcame Protestant orthodoxy.
His hymns may be found even today in both Evangelical and Catholic hymnals. If someone were to compare Paul of the Cross and Gerhard Tersteegen from a theological point of view, he would detect, as a matter of course, differences between their ideas of and feelings toward the ecclesial positions of their Churches. What would be found would be a son of the Evangelical -Reformed tradition and a son of the Roman Catholic one.
Moreover, he would remark that each of these two sons recognized this and found nothing false therein. Nevertheless, mystical experience led both of them to a more profound dimension of the Christian Faith, one that went beyond any specific limitation or qualification. Furthermore, the language they used to make this mystical experience intelligible for others went beyond confessional divisions existent even prior to the Reformation, and each represented a link in the uninterrupted tradition of the mystical theology of the Middle Ages.
This mystical experience effected a common state of being in the innermost depths of their souls, a state they described in an almost identical term: sonship. Also paralleling the life of Paul of the Cross is that of another Evangelical contemporary, Nikolas Graf von Zinzendorf , who was responsible for the renewal of the Herrnhuter Brudergemeinde of the Bruder-Unitat Unity of Brethren and founder of the Moravian churches.
With the same dedication with which Paul of the Cross devoted himself entirely to popular missions, Zinzendorf devoted himself to the rediscovery of the voluntary fellowship of Church viewed as a single community, that is, as a base ecclesial community, as it is called today. Why not? What strikes us when we compare Paul of the Cross, Gerhard Tersteegen, and Graf Zinzendorf are the following: The mystical experience, the fundamental experience, and the experience of the cross all possess the same unity.
The mysticism of the cross does not belong to an elite; it leads rather to a solidarity with abandoned people. Being close to the people does not necessarily mean populist when it flows out of the pain of Christ and is a participation in and communion with his passion. The author has rightly referred, in many places, to the present-day importance of this mysticism of the passion and of the theology of the cross.
This eighteenth-century charismatic of the cross can help us remain centered on what is essential from the standpoint of ecumenism, ethics, or theology. He does this in at least three respects. Ecumenism under the sign of the cross. The unity of the Church represents basically a desideratum having no root in political or ecclesiastical calculation.
Nor is it, in the final analysis, a desideratum arising from favorable circumstances. Naturally today, the divided world needs a common Christian avowal of the one God of peace, and woe to the Church if she has supported divisions and obstinacy in the face of this clear mission. Naturally, confessional disunity will always be inexplicable, especially for Christians from the so-called confessionally mixed countries. This is not the first time external need makes requisite the unity of Christendom within the framework of a Church in which we all may believe.
The messianic people have been born from the passion of the Messiah. The more profoundly the various Churches and Christian communities understand this mystery of the cross, the better will they also understand the mystery of community within the framework of the one Church of Christ. Upon the Crucified One lies the promise of the resurrection and of the kingdom; and this has application for the whole inhabited earth, for all those small and great anxieties and perturbations against which this promise contends: Ave Crux — unica Spes Hail, O cross, our only hope!
The imitation of the cross today. Our century 11 12 1. A profound experience of faith, a mystical experience, which goes beyond traditional and collective determinations of faith. An active turning to the people that is the fundamental experience of Church, which goes beyond ritual and institutional determinants of ecclesiastical life.
Christians who until now have not experienced this persecution still must have the fact clear in their own minds: Christian faith means the imitation of Christ — to take up and bear his cross and to give their lives for him.
Since the so-called enthusiasts had developed the belief and ethic of an imitation of Christ, orthodox Protestants suppressed it. Often, too, a state ethic or a state religion was imposed instead. This was done above all by Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Since then, too, the imitation of Christ in the Catholic Churches of Europe is no longer a duty solely for those in monastic orders, in consequence of which ordinary churchgoers thought themselves free of the radical demands of Christ.
Mysticism and martyrdom again draw very close together. The many existing parallels between mysticism and martyrdom offer us food for thought. It was, after all, a jail cell and not a monastic cell. Furthermore, what does a monastic cell have in common with a jail cell?
Poverty, solitude, suffering, temptation, death. The blessingbestowing presence of the resurrected Christ, who lives in us and with us, is experienced in the actual fellowship of his suffering in jails and in torture chambers.
The focal point of the mystical experience of the passion of our Lord, and of the presence of the Spirit of the Risen One, is today, for many men, the dungeon where they have been thrown on account of their positive confession and opposition to evil. Is not this martyrdom the serious outgrowth of that mysticism? Conversely, must not mystical spirituality give advice and preparation for just such a political contingency?
The mystical experience of God may actually become a bridge between the cross on Golgotha and corporeal martyrdom. To practice the silence, the solitude, the prayer, the resignation in the desert of emptiness, and lastly mystical death — all these belong necessarily to the imitation of Christ. From these experiences many people are even able to say: the more profound the mystical absorption, the more free the political resistance.
More than that, the more otherworldly the experience of God, the more down to earth and unselfish the imitation of Christ through love. The theology of the cross. Last but not least we must set the cross in the center of an ecumenical theology. The cross in itself is not only a characteristically Christian symbol but also the measure of Christian theology. All the statements about Christian theology, and about God, man, and the world, may be considered only in the perspective of the crucified Christ, since otherwise they are refuted by his death on the cross.
What this means for the Christian doctrine of salvation is always presented in new outline in the history of Christian theology. What this means for the Christian doctrine of God has not yet been exhaustively thought through. From the theology of the cross there follows the doctrine of the Trinity. Today, we find a striking convergence among Catholic and Evangelical theologians, who embrace the mystery of the Trinity and of the cross. From the theology of the cross there results also an anthropology of sinful, ill, imprisoned, poor, and oppressed man; of man in his reality revealed by Christ on the cross: ecce homo!
But what sort of anthropology has the courage to start with displaced reality, since it is a disdained, human one? In the long run, there results from the glory and human freedom. All lines of Christian theology converge as in a focus in the Crucified One, and from out of the Crucified One everything here is baptized in the bright light of redemption. The closer a theology locates its center to the cross, the more all encompassing will be its circumference in society, history, and nature.
Paul of the Cross, founder of a religious Order, pastor, and spiritual teacher, who placed the suffering and crucified Lord at the center of his life. Theologically, his thinking was dominated less by the forcefulness of concepts than by his own existential encounter with God. This fact assumes importance when considering the source and originality of his teaching. Well worth discovery, too, is the inner logic of his thought, which this book by its method tries to render more systematic.
To appreciate the spiritual and religious thinking of this historically concrete personality, the reader needs to know something of the factors that influenced his life and development. Part One is devoted to this purpose. First, it sketches in a few strokes the life and work of the founder of the Passionist Congregation. Then, it describes the source material which he himself wrote.
Next, it examines his era and its surroundings in greater detail, giving more emphasis to the environs in which the founder worked. In this analysis, the most difficult question to answer is: In what way did the thinking of John Tauler influence the spiritual and religious thought of our saint?
While Part One has as its subject the personality of St. Paul of the Cross and his reliance on theological Tradition, Part Two deals with the passioncentrism of his spiritual doctrine. Closely related to the idea of entering into or participating in the passion and death of Jesus is the concept of mystical death.
In two of his letters, St. Paul of the Cross refers to having written a manuscript on this topic. Vorrei che lei leggesse spesso quella direzione della morte mistica, che io le mandai in quell libbricciolo manoscritto, she so che molto le giovera.
Peter of St. John, a fellow Passionist. Published by Passionist Fr. Its thesis is that St. Paul of the Cross is not the author of the treatise on mystical death. The last chapter of the book deals with the place of the resurrection of Jesus in the spiritual teaching of Paul of the Cross. Representing as it does a united whole, the paschal mystery must be considered both from the standpoint of crucifixion and resurrection if a complete view of it is to be obtained. Paul of the Cross is examined in the last chapter.
This is a disputable question, unclarified in any preexisting theological treatise on the life of the founder of the Passionist Congregation. Of interest is the method used in the present study. See below, p. Also see the response of A. While this part of Fr. Records of testimonies of individuals fill over 11, folio pages written on both sides. Close attention was also paid so as not to err in terms of systematizing his doctrine arbitrarily, a mistake easily made when dealing with such a mosaic work.
The following considerations are of some import too when discussing the methodology of this research. His purpose in writing and communicating with others compels us, therefore, to consider his statements not only in terms of their thought content but also in terms of their contemplative meaning and to penetrate this meaning to its depths. Only in such a manner is it possible to grasp the profundity of his thought. The difficulty, however, in fully understanding a spiritual teacher and a mystic and in interpreting him authentically becomes increasingly clear.
The aim of this study is to explain, with the greatest possible authenticity, the personality of St. Paul of the Cross and his passioncentric doctrine. An analysis of this question and the insights attained are presented in the Excursus. It was considered appropriate that this investigation be approached with neither the psychological distance of a problem solver nor with the appealing indifference of an objective observer. In fact, my respect and esteem for this master of the inner life grew as my familiarity with the richness of his spirituality deepened and my awareness of the profoundly religious dimensions of his writings increased.
Because this work has for its object the deeply intimate, spiritual, and religious thinking of a saint, of a man who lived and thought within a framework of intense union with Christ, it is understandable, even necessary, that theological reflection on his thought be carried out within the context of a lived Faith. I have, therefore, allowed myself to be guided by two basic concerns: 1. To do an academically and theologically sound investigation which satisfies the requirements of scientific criticism; 2.
To allow for the introduction of my own personal convictions regarding matters of faith. The rationale for the latter is that it is permissible for a theologian to interject his own convictions in the act of theologizing since they are those of an authority in the field.
To state this even more strongly, there are times when they ought to be expressed. In this research the reader is introduced to the mystery of Christus patiens et crucifixus the suffering and crucified Christ and, by means of the theology and spirituality of the founder of the Conclusions reached are the result of data collection, classification, and analysis. Paul de la Croix y apparait, en effet, a cote de S. Alphonse de Liguori, au premier rang des maitres de la vie spirtuelle, en ce dix-huitieme siecle.
Alphonsus Liguori, St. Paul of the Cross appeared in the first rank of the masters of the spiritual life of the eighteenth century. Finally and perhaps this is an exaggerated claim , my intention was to adhere to the primary objective of St. Paul of the Cross: to keep before the eyes of all the figure of Christ.
The fulfillment of this vow was for this author, as a spiritual son of St. Paul of the Cross, the strongest reason for conducting this research. Besides an abstract, argumentative theology learned in school, there is a practical and implicit theology which does not consist so much in the definition of abstract notions as in the fulfillment realized in the lives of deeply spiritual persons. If theology is not to remain self-contentedly estranged from life but rather to retain a historically concrete relevance, then of necessity it must be open to the acceptance of impulses which, at times acting as correctives, emanate from the theological tools employed by great Christian personalities.
We find such a theology implicit in the existential and perfected Christianity of St. Paul of the Cross , in whom we find some quite extraordinary characteristics. The source from which his thoughts and actions flow and from which his energy is derived is contemplation of the suffering Christ. Implicit in his theology of the passion are powerful elements of a speculative -mystical and an affective-spiritual theology, with his original contribution being the balance he achieves between these two polar positions.
Rahner said of the Spiritual Exercises of St. Rather, drawing on the experience of theological debate, there is an existentially engaged theological method based on the observation that narration rather than argumentation is the predominant literary form of the Gospels.
Thus, the phrase narrative theology has been coined. These are precisely the characteristics that distinguish the implicit theology of St. These two elements, so powerfully present in the spirituality of St. Paul of the Cross, are rooted, on the one hand, in the writings of Tauler and St. John of the Cross and, on the other hand, in the writings of St. Teresa of Jesus and St. Francis de Sales.
Zoffoli, Diario Spirituale di S. Paolo Della Croce. Ratzinger Aschaffenburg, The English translation of the diary used in this text was translated by Silvan Rouse with a preface by Stanislaus Breton. It is published in Fr. Jude Mead, St. Paolo della Croce by Fr. Amedeo of the Mother of the Good Shepherd 4 vols. Wulf, ed. Hardship was no stranger to the Danei household. Both birth and death were major events in this trial-tried family. Paul was the second oldest of sixteen children, of whom eleven died in infancy.
As a result, Paul attended school very irregularly. Impressed with a sermon by a priest or perhaps just by a private conversation with him, Paul was moved by a spirit of compunction and repentance. He made a general confession and resolved to make a radical surrender of his life to God.
After a while a few months, perhaps spent in barracks and camps , Paul came to the conclusion that this was not the proper way to serve God. In , the father moved to Ovada for business purposes and remained there until In or , after many changes of residence, he returned with his entire family to Castellazzo, where his own parents lived.
See Annali della Congregazione henceforth referred to as Annali , by Fr. John Mary of St. Ignatius, 28, n. Also see vol. Zoffoli, S. Count Nicola Canefri, a friend and benefactor of St. Thus Paul Francis, born in January of , became the eldest child of the family.
The protocols of the informative process were published in I Processi di Beatificazione e Canonizzazione di S. Paolo della Croce keyword: Processi , vol. If the depositions quoted are available in published form, then the volume and page number of the text are given after the keyword Processi, as exemplified in the following footnote.
Paul of the Cross that at first seem unimportant, even trivial, but actually have a great effect upon his later life. It is known that his mother would read to her ten children the lives of the ancient Christian monks and hermits POV, v. John Mary; Processi I These stories greatly impressed little Paul, and he, together with his younger brother, John Baptist, tried to imitate the lives of these men Storia Critica I How much Jesus Christ suffered!
The image of the crucifix left a deep impression in the psyche of the children. When we find in the later life of St. Paul of the Cross that the passion of Christ is at the center of his thought, we cannot help but recall the education provided by his mother. Of course, this is not the only or the complete explanation of the passioncentrism found in the life of the founder of the Passionists.
Still, today one knows, from the results of depth psychology, what a great importance early childhood experiences have in the later life of a person. Freihern v. Pastor, Geschichte der Papste, , Paul of the cross in which the history of his vocation as founder of a Congregation takes shape.
Because there are original documents preserved 18 in which Paul himself speaks of the progression in his vocation to establish a monastic order, we are not forced to deal with vague conjectures and inferences made from secondary sources.
Initially, he felt called to retire into solitude. More will be said later about this stage. As early as a date deduced from assertions made in quoted material , Paul had a firm desire to retire as a hermit. Decisive in the life of Paul as hermit and as founder of the Passionist Congregation was the date November 22, On that day, he bid farewell to his family and received from the hands of his former confessor and spiritual director Bishop Gattinara of Alessandria the garb of a hermit, which became the black tunic of his Congregation.
Charles in Castellazzo. These weeks served as a preparatory retreat for his life as hermit and founder. Told by Bishop Gattinara to record his feelings and inner experiences which occurred during this time, Paul of the Cross as he later came to be known 23 did so. An authentic transcripts of this spiritual diary 24 has been preserved and is most revealing. For example, in an entry of the first day Paul encapsulated the basic principle underlying his entire spirituality: to be crucified with Christ.
See Annali, 34f. John Mary; Processi This episode may be considered the birth of the Passionist Congregation, since by now Paul had very decidedly planned to obey the call he had received from God. We refer especially to the critical edition, Diario Spirituale, with its Introduction and Commentary by E. Ratzinger, was translated by Martin Bialas. The English translation used here was translated by Silvan Rouse with a preface by Stanislaus Breton.
All three sources will be cited in each footnote that pertains to the diary. As an example, see n. The original manuscript, according to his own statement, was written in an amazingly short time of five days December , At the conclusion of these days spent in prayer, penance, and fasting, Paul wanted to leave for Rome to obtain papal approbation of this Rule. Bishop Gattinara, however, thought that the time was not yet ripe and succeeded in dissuading the young founder.
In the following months, Paul lived as a hermit in the vicinity of Castellazzo, where he taught catechism to children, preached at Masses on Sundays, and even conducted a mission for the people at the request of his bishop. Upon his return to Castellazzo, Paul accepted his first recruit, his brother John Baptist, who too received the black habit of the Congregation from the hands of Bishop Gattinara and was thus clothed as a hermit today we could say as a Passionist.
Still preoccupied about the need for papal approbation of the Rule, Paul, this time accompanied by his brother, set out again for Rome. He therefore welcomed the invitation of Cardinal Corradini to care for invalids in the newly built Hospital of St. Gallicano, where Paul confronted human suffering in a dramatic way.
This they accomplished with such satisfaction that Don Emilio encouraged them both to study for the priesthood. After a short period of instruction in pastoral theology at a Franciscan college at St. I wrote as quickly as if someone were dictating to me; I felt the words coming from my heart.
John Mary; Processi If; Annali, 37f. Andata, andate! Clear out! See Regulae et Constitutiones , 2. When the pope consecrated an altar in the Church of St. Mary in Domnica also called Navicella , Paul with the help of Cardinal Corradini took advantage of the opportunity to present his concern to the pontiff.
To assure its future, he also established a religious community whose members bound themselves to look after the medical and spiritual needs of the patients. The Danei brothers entered this community and took vows according to the Rule of this new society. All that is known is that a Franciscan priest, Fr.
They wore their black habits, and, insofar as possible, they ordered their day in conformity with the Rule of the Poor of Jesus. Still, it was not the kind of life to which Paul felt called. Establishment of the Congregation Quite a few years earlier, the two Danei brothers had withdrawn to a hermitage on Mount Argentario, a promontory situated on the coast about km 93 mi.
They loved the site, its seclusion and picturesque beauty; now they decided to reestablish themselves there, only this time in a different hermitage. Thus, this mountain in Tuscany became the home of the first Passionist community. Within a short period of time, however, it became apparent that the tiny hermitage did not offer sufficient space to accommodat e all who wanted to live the spirit of St.
The church and cloister were consecrated in After examination by a commission of cardinals and the inclusion of some modifications, it was approved by Pope Benedict XIV on May 15, , 36 more than twenty years after its original formulation. It is at this time that Paul arrived at the fourth and last stage in the maturation of his vocation.
Above all, it consisted in his charism, his special grace: to make known, through contemplation and preaching, the passion and death of Jesus to a sinful world. This vocation remains to this day the mission of his Congregation in the Church and world. Because of this, each Passionist makes, over and above the three traditional vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, a fourth vow to preach Christ Crucified in a special way.
In , the same pope issued his approbation in the form of a brief. Finally, on Sept. There are three arguments in favor of this supposition: 1. The letter to Bishop Gattinara of Dec. Paul of the Cross desired that his new Congregation be exempt, that is, that it be directly under pontifical rather than local Episcopal authority. He further wanted its members to make solemn rather than simple vows. Notwithstanding his desires, the approbation put the new Congregation under Episcopal authority, 39 and its members were permitted simple vows only.
Not content with this solution, St. Paul of the Cross again petitioned for the privileges of exemption and solemn vows. Five years later, in , the Rule was again approved in a brief 40 issued by Benedict XIV in which Passionists were no longer placed under Episcopal authority, the new Congregation having been granted its desired status of exemption.
Since the newly built monastery on Mount Argentario could no longer accommodate all who wanted to enter, the Passionists began building two new monasteries. See Regulae et Constitutiones , Paul of the Cross had been trying to obtain a brief approving the Rule. Eutizio at Soriano, to the east of Viterbo, was consecrated Fr. Shortly after, Paul summoned the first General Chapter, whose members elected him superior general and entrusted him with primary responsibility for the future of the whole Congregation.
All new foundations face difficulties, and it was not long before conflicts occurred for Paul of the Cross. Mendicant monks in a nearby monasteries felt their rights to solicit funds for their own upkeep jeopardized by the new monastery. By , their complaint reached Rome. He was not lacking in support. Many bishops and priests had observed the endeavors of the Passionists and supported them.
In April , the dispute was settled by a commission of cardinals, who issued a document allowing Passionists to resume the work of establishing new foundations. Although the pope himself approved this document, 44 the attacks still did not end. That the founder considered these attacks to be a serious threat is obvious even in subsequent years. In his letters he frequently alluded to this problem. Paul of the Cross succeeded in establishing five new monasteries prior to Fortunately, he did not lack men who wanted to lead lives in accordance with his spirit and the Rule he conceived.
Spiritual Director and Lay Missionary St. Paul of the Cross was not only the founder of the Passionists; he was also a fervent spiritual director and lay missionary. At the age of twenty-six and as yet neither cleric nor priest, he felt called to an apostolate of leading people to a conversion of mind and heart.
In the first chapter of the Rule of it is specified that one of the essential aims of the Congregation is to work for the salvation of others. During the course of his life, Paul conducted approximately missions 51 in over thirty dioceses in Italy. Besides the usual subject matter sacraments, sin, death, judgment, heaven, and hell , Paul placed special emphasis on meditation on the passion of our Lord Jesus Christ, which, as prescribed in the Rule, was given each evening of the mission.
Cherubina Bresciani. The primary purpose of lay missions at that time was to effect a conversion of heart in those attending. This corresponded with St. Lay missions provided good opportunities to preach to the faithful, above all, to preach Christ Crucified. Since lay missions were of limited duration, it was possible for the priests to remain in their retreats for extended periods of time and therefore to live a life of contemplation as prescribed by the Rule. Paul of the Cross is contained in Storia Critica He presents this idea very clearly in a letter written to a priest desirous of becoming a Passionist.
If it were destroyed, the whole edifice would collapse, and we would be severed from that special mission given this Congregation by God. He went on missionary journeys three times a year in spring, autumn, and winter and spent the remaining time in the monastery. While Paul took charge of preaching, lectures, and meditations, his brother as busy conducting spiritual exercises for priests and religious. A deep friendship existed between the two brothers.
When John Baptist died in August , these tasks fell to Fr. Over and above spiritual sufferings, 60 which accompanied the establishment of his Congregation, serious illness often threatened his life. On several occasions he was thought to be on his deathbed. On one such occasion during the summer of , he was so ill everyone thought he would die.
He himself, thinking the same, prepared for death and received the anointing of the sick. For Paul, these occasions of spiritual and physical suffering were opportunities to enter existentially into the mysticism of the cross and passion. Paul of the Cross fought for the establishment of a monastery in Rome. Finally, in the autumn of , a friend and benefactor gave him the title of a house located near the famous church of St. John Lateran. To meet the housing requirements of a monastic community, renovations were made.
While establishing this retreat, Paul came to know Cardinal Antonio Ganganelli, 63 who became a strong supporter of the Congregation and an intimate friend of the saint. That is why many conducted missions, one after another, before returning to the retreat.
Gaetano see below, pp. In his letter he would many times take his friends into his confidence and voice his inner distress to them. Paul of the Cross saw occasions of unavoidable suffering as good opportunities to participate in the passion of Jesus. See below, Chap. John Mary reported in the Annals that when Paul lived in Rome he met with the cardinal, for the first time, on Nov. On November 15, , he approved its Rule by a papal brief. Moreover, the Congregation was explicitl y acknowledged as an official ecclesiastical institution.
Paul of the Cross now devoted himself to the fulfillment of another important goal, the foundation of a monastery of Passionist nuns who, living a strictly enclosed contemplative life, were to support the apostolic work of the priests by their lives of prayer and sacrifice. His longdelayed desire became a reality when on May 3, , eleven nuns entered the newly built monastery 67 at Corneto Tarquinia , their Rule having received prior approbation by the Holy See.
He was therefore aware of its cramped living conditions. As a result, he wanted to provide the Passionists with better lodging in Rome. Soon an occasion presented itself. The monastery of SS. John and Paul, situated on the Coelian Hill, one of the seven hills of ancient Rome, became free. On December 9, , the holy founder and a number of his brethren moved into the large monastery. From then on, this retreat became the center of the Passionist Congregation, the Generalate itself being established there.
John and Paul received a most honored guest. On June 26, , the titular feast of the church and monastery, the pontiff came to pay a visit to the old and ailing founder of the Congregation. John and Paul and afterward visited Paul in his sickroom and talked with him at length. On October 18, , Paul, recognizing his approaching death, requested the last sacraments, after which his long life devoted to the crucified Christ came to an end.
Several witnesses attested to this fact during the sanctification processes. See Storia Critica f. John Mary Processi f. Paul of the Cross, the family Costantini of Corneto today Tarquinia. They sold a part of their estate so that the monastery and church might be built. Nom de Marie, S. Croce e Passione di Gesu Cristo [Rome, ].
Andrew, both of which had become available as a result of the suppression of the Society. Nevertheless, one of the cardinals, a member of the commission dealing with the suppression, proposed that Paul of the Cross exchange the above-mentioned church for the Monastery of SS. John and Paul, once the home of the Vincentians. The pontiff assented to this. However, this proposal necessitated a long series of difficult negotiations with the Vincentians. Finally, on Dec. John and Paul Fr.
John Mary Processi Preparations for the process of beatification were begun fourteen months after his death with Pope Pius VI himself urging the priests to prepare the process Annali, The Spiritual Diary This is the oldest preserved document of St. Paul of the Cross, written at the behest of his former confessor and spiritual director Msgr. Gattinara, bishop of Alessandria.
In it the saint recorded his interior lights and insights that occurred during a retreat in a cell near the sacristy of the church of St. Charles in Castellazzo between the dates of November 23, , and January 1, Worth mentioning are the Italian editions of Fr.
Stanislao, which included a detailed commentary and appeared in Torino in ; 79 E. Paul turned the original manuscript over to Bishop Gattinara, who in turn left it in the possession of Canon Sardi, a young friend of the saint.
In a letter dated October 14, , 83 Sardi replied that he hesitated to send the desired documents to Rome for fear they be lost in the mail the documents included not only the diary but also many letters written by the saint to Bishop Gattinara and to Sardi himself. Sardi first deliberated with his friends, the earl of Canefri and Fr. His feast is celebrated each year on Oct.
See Storia Critica 1, chap. Paolo della Croce 2d ed. Most were original manuscripts. Stanislao in the periodical Bollettino della Congregazione Rome. Basing his work on the most reliable of manuscripts, Enrico Zoffoli issued a critical edition of the diary in This text includes a review in which variants are recorded and footnotes to and explanations of the text are provided. Bialas, Das geistliche Tagebuch des heiligen Paul vom Kreuz.
The English translation of the spiritual diary used in this text was that of Fr. Silvan Rouse with Preface by Fr. Stanislaus Breton. It is included in the text compiled by Fr. Francis Gattinara, then bishop of this town and later archbishop of Torino.
Cherubino da Voghera, who was preaching in the cathedral at Todi. Cherubin o was to deliver the papers to the Passionist bishop of Todi, Thomas Struzzieri, who was then to take the documents to Rome on his next occasion to travel there. Cherubino, however, never received the documents.
Inquiries and investigations at the post offices of Alessandria, Bologna, Narni, and Todi were to no avail. Fortunately, Canon Sardi was a very prudent man, and he himself had made a handwritten copy of these important papers. Cherubino Maria da Voghera n. Later I put it in an envelope addressed to the Capuchin Fr. Cherubim Mary da Voghera.
It is printed in the Diario Spirituale, The Rule of the Order The original text. The original text of the rule composed by St. Paul of the Cross during December , , during the time of his retreat in Castellazzo, 88 has not been preserved in its entirety. Only its Introduction, Epilogue, and a few lines of the text have been handed down to us89 along with the story that tells why. In the beginning of February , Paul of the Cross made a customary canonical visit to the Passionist Monastery of the Presentation on Mount Argentario.
At that time he commanded that all papers written by him and preserved in the monastery be burned. The rector, however, asked one of the priests to copy quickly a part of the manuscript containing the original Rule. Paul of the Cross wrote the Rule for his own community without ever having seen a Rule of any other religious order, 93 his experience being limited to familiarity with the statues of a confraternity he directed in his native town of Castellazzo.
This is a reference to the previously quoted letter to Bishop Gattinara of Dec. Ignatius quoted the entire wording of this fragment from memory. See POV, v. Bialas, Im Zeichen des Kreuzes, Although the bishop himself belonged to a religious order called the Pii Operarii Pious Workers , 96 it cannot be concluded that the Rule and Constitutions of the Pious Workers exerted an important influence upon those of the Passionists.
In fact, there were but a few places where the one text corresponded significantly with the other. This is the oldest preserved text of the Passionist Rule. It is included in the critical edition of the various texts of the Rule published by Fr. Some were also published in H. Their founder was Carlo Caraffa See Lexikon fur Theologie und Kirche, 2d ed.
Giogini juxtaposes areas of similarity and agreement between the two texts in Regulae et Constitutiones , 14, n. It was not written by the founder himself but by a copyist of the vicar general of Orbetello Regulae et Constitutiones , Paul of the Cross, it was sent to Cardinal Altieri in Rome. Neither could its members make solemn vows, a right which St. Paul of the Cross had so wanted and struggled to obtain.
The text. Paul of the Cross decided to apply again to the Holy See for approbation of the Rule by papal brief. Their study completed, the cardinals gave an affirmative response in March Thus, the Rule and Constitutions were once more approved. The first column consists of the entire text of the Rule. Although many clarifications and additions were introduced into the text, its content presented very few basic differences from the version.
Paul of the Cross again tried to obtain the privilege of solemn vows for his Congregation. The interpretation is not word by word; rather the translator expresses [its meaning] superbly. See Fr. For that reason, the cardinals decreed on Nov. In May of , only ten days after assuming the pontifical throne, he received Paul in a private audience.
On that occasion, Paul handed the new pope a petition in which he presented his still unfulfilled desires for the Congregation, although by now he no longer asked for the special privilege of solemn vows. Paul of the Cross that, on several occasions, the founder had foretold the election of Cardinal Ganganelli as pope Strambi, Vita, f. In English, Strambi, Life, These drafts were then to be sent to the founder for his approval.
These pontifical documents are of great importance because they definitely demonstr ate the protection afforded St. The text of this Rule, as approved in the brief and in the bull, has been published in a critical work by Fr. The original of this text, preserved in the archives of the Generalate, was first published by the vice general Fr.
John Baptist of St. Vincent Ferreri in ; it is divided into thirty-eight chapters. Paul of the Cross undertook a revision of the text, adding more exact definitions and changes. Paul of the Cross for its approval. Paul of the Cross See n. This is published in the Acta Congregationes 12 : Manassei, and L.
Eugenio Storia Critica The text was published in Bullarii Romani continuatio Rome, , See Regulae et Constitutiones , 24, n. Regulae et Constitutiones , Paul of the Cross, Fr. Croce e Passione di N. Brevi, vol. The approximately two thousand letters contain such a quantity of detail that, put together, they are like a mosaic revealing the characteristic features and principles of his thought.
During a time of severe illness, she personally burned all of them upon an order of the saint, who feared they might be read by others. Amedeo in Rome in His edition, however, did not use authentic hand-written sources, but relied upon letters published in an edition.
Later, eighty-five additional letters were discovered. These appeared in the Italian publication Bollettino. Fulgentius of Jesus; also see L and L , among others. Using some simple arithmetic, we can estimate the total number of letters written during this time period. Using a more realistic average of 3. Amedeo indicates at the end of each letter included in his edition whether the letter conforms with an original or with a copy.
These four categories give us a frame of reference regarding the authenticity of his sources. To Sr. Paolo, onde presentemente non ho veruna delle medsime da esibire. Di Gesu, con profondo rispetto di stima ed ossquio mi risprotesto in fretta e di partenza. Zelli; also see L and L , among others.
For instance, among his correspondents are found an equal number of popes, cardinals, and influential figures in society and politics along with people in ordinary walks of life, e. The greater part of his letters, however, are addressed to priests and religious, among whom the brothers and sisters of his Congregation occupy first place. Two categories of letters can be distinguished on the basis of content, i.
Undoubtedly, the establishment of twelve monasteries, the number of missions conducted by Paul during his lifetime, and the repeated papal approbations of the Rule necessitated innumerable letters. Nevertheless, the majority of the preserved letters are those written for the purpose of providing guidance and spiritual direction.
It is not unusual for such letters to extend to three, four, or five printed pages. Cerruti; also see L I, Oct. The exceptions are: 1. Thomas Fossi later known as Fr. Agnes Grazi, letters L I 3. Fulgentius of Jesus, 59 letters L 4. Amiamo Dio, facciamoci piccoli assai, che Dio ci fara grandi. Yet is it not fitting that your poor father at times give vent to some overflow of charity with his children?
Paul of the Cross, the following needs to be said. Certainly the laws of human sympathy and antipathy played a part in the formation of these trusting relationships. When women were involved, it is also possible that some of the attractions not recognized by the saint had their origin in the difference between the sexes. I am of the opinion, however, that such attractions do not speak at all against the integrity of his person, because a saint too — better said, a saint especially — must represent first of all a human person in a perfect way.
Holiness is not opposed to true humanness, nor does it hinder its development. Rather, holiness completes humanness in all its fullness. It develops and perfects the human person according to the pattern of being given him by the Creator. Put in another way, humanness and holiness do not oppose each other in a mutually exclusive way but enhance each other in a reciprocal and complementary way. Although from a literary standpoint there is nothing extraordinary in these letter, they represent the single most important source of informati on on his thought.
Paul of the Cross have been preserved. Of these, all but the last nine sermons were transcribed by the founder himself. They are bound in two volumes and preserved in the archives of the Passionist Order. Age plus frequent usage have left them in a bad state. He himself judiciously admitted in his letters that his sermons were copied from other sources.
In one of his letters, he states he borrowed greatly from Svegliarino Cristiano. Jose de Barcia y Zambrana. A comparison of the sermons of St. Paul of the Cross with the abovementioned text reveals that some of the sermons were transcribed The spiritual thought of the saint, as revealed mostly in his letters, will be presented in Part Two of this study.
I contains pages; vol. It seems certain he took these materials with him on his frequent missionary journeys, hence their bad state see Storia Critica F. Attached to the bottom of the first sheet is another piece of paper containing a statement by the archivist, Fr. Ignatius of St. Paul of the Cross appealed to other authors may be justified in that he possessed no formal or systematic education in theology. Also, we may presume he copied the sermons during the early years of his apostolate.
Had he written them in his later years, they surely would have reflected more of his own experience as a preacher. Bencard in Augsburg-Dillingen in In others, whole fragments were omitted, and not infrequently the succession of treated points was modified. Nelson, writing for the mainstream PBS website, notes that Obama, too, has infused religious imagery into his speeches. And Obama has buttressed this faith with bombs.
According to Politifact , by the spring of , Obama had ordered drone strikes in Somalia, Pakistan and Yemen as opposed to 60 by President Bush ; drone strikes in Afghanistan in alone; and a smattering of others in Syria, Libya, Iraq and other far-off, generally Muslim locales. None of that is to say that American Christians are in any way different or worse than contemporary practitioners of Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Sikhism, or even Buddhism.
All faiths utilize war-like language and imagery to describe matters of the spirit and exhort followers to religious catharsis through violence. One central reason that contemporary leaders have such a willing audience when representing war as religiously sanctioned — and, in many cases, even a spiritual obligation — is the extensive history of uniting physical war and the spiritual path within the sacred teachings of virtually all creeds. Though much of the religious language was undoubtedly meant as metaphor, the human mind runs quickly downhill to the literal, leaving reams of imagery and injunctions for leaders to utilize when discussing military campaigns within the secular culture, and influencing the minds of potential warriors.
American politicians, the media and even mainstream entertainers — like those of all other cultures and religions — do everything in their power to play up the similarities between the religious path and war, all for the poorly obscured purpose of exploiting human pawns to protect their own earthly power or to just simply make a buck e.
Perhaps, to some extent, they might even believe their own words, especially if they themselves have fought in a war and come out more or less whole. In this case they will be forced to trust in the lie of a mystical war, if only to help justify the horrors they themselves witnessed and perpetrated. We need only examine the words of a man considered an American hero, Senator John McCain R-AZ , to understand how war language explicitly borrows from the religious and even mystical lexicon.
He loved his country, and the values that make us exceptional among nations, and good…Love and honor oblige us. We are obliged to value our blessings, and to pay our debts to those who sacrificed to secure them for us. They are blood debts…The loss of every fallen soldier should hurt us lest we ever forget the terrible costs of war, and the sublime love of those who sacrifice everything on our behalf.
For those who waver, the dead soldier is held out as incontrovertible proof of the necessity and worth of the war. Through the sacrifice of human souls for political ends, war becomes enmeshed with a true God experience. To heal the illness of state-sponsored murder, we must first admit that.
Filed under Foreign Policy , Race and Religion. Tagged as America , Christianity , God , Islam , mysticism , spirituality , violence , war. In this post, Part 3 in a series on Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton, Emilio da Costa describes actions taken by President Barack Obama and Clinton in her roles as Secretary of State and Senator in the realms of civil liberties and foreign policy.
In fact, the State Department under Obama and Clinton has in some cases been more hawkish than its Republican predecessor. Part 2 of the series, which focused on the likelihood that Clinton would meaningfully regulate Wall Street, can be found here. Yet, it is all too easy to fall into the trap of allowing these events to absolve him.
But he wants to continue indefinitely detaining people without charges or trial. For example, Obama has successfully managed to codify legislation permitting indefinite detention without trial. It nullifies the right to be informed of criminal charges, the right to a speedy and public trial, and the right to trial by an impartial jury. Whether or not Obama sticks to his word, the provisions remain for future administrations to take full advantage of, and each of the three NDAAs passed since have continued to authorize indefinite detention.
Ted Cruz who best expresses civil liberties concerns on an issue. Among his peers in the Senate, presidential hopeful Bernie Sanders also voted against the NDAA in , but Sanders was one of only three members of the Democratic caucus that did so.
To fully appreciate just how ludicrous this legislation is, it helps to look at the way preventive detention is applied in other places. As former Prime Minister John Major put it in opposing the expansion to 42 days:. By rather stark and extreme contrast, Obama is seeking preventive detention powers that are indefinite — meaning without any end, potentially permanent.
On the other hand, it should be eye-opening that Russia, a country that the American media is constantly criticizing for its human rights record, limits its preventive detention power to a period of 5 days. As Secretary of State, Clinton backed a bold escalation of the Afghanistan war. She pressed Obama to arm the Syrian rebels, and later endorsed air strikes against the Assad regime.
On at least three crucial issues—Afghanistan, Libya, and the bin Laden raid—Clinton took a more aggressive line than Gates, a Bush-appointed Republican. Returning to Iraq, nowadays, Clinton is dedicated to clarifying that she considers her vote for the war a mistake. But I could try to help us learn the right lessons from that war and apply them to Afghanistan and other challenges where we had fundamental security interests. Neither in her book nor in her policy is there even the slightest evidence that she has, in fact, tried to learn from Iraq beyond the most obvious lesson—the undesirability of US ground invasions and occupations, which even the Republicans have managed to learn.
For Clinton herself helped to launch US airpower to topple another regime, this one in Libya—and, as in Iraq, the results have been anarchy, sectarian conflict and opportunities for Islamist extremists that have destabilized the entire region. She then helped lead the United States quite far down the road of doing the same thing in Syria. As opposed to just verbally expressing regret or saying that she made a mistake, there was a rare instance regarding the PATRIOT Act in which Clinton actually changed her vote.
Like a true war hawk, there is one issue Clinton has never flip-flopped on; no matter the circumstances, her support for Israel has never wavered. The ICJ ruled that Israel, like any country, had the right to build the barrier along its internationally recognized border for self-defense, but did not have the right to build it inside another country as a means of effectively annexing Palestinian land.
In an unprecedented congressional action, Senator Clinton immediately introduced a resolution to put the U. Eventually, even the Israeli Supreme Court was reasonable enough to admit that, along one route, the wall was disproportionately harmful to the Palestinians relative to its intended purpose, but not Clinton:. Instead, she takes pride in the wall as a symbol of the unchecked and ever-growing authority of the US and its allies to ignore human rights and international law in the name of terrorism:.
This is against the terrorists. To a tirelessly devoted career politician like Hillary Clinton, overwhelming evidence is an afterthought. It is in the interest of the US federal government and corporate oligarchy for Russia to look bad and for Israel to look good, and how Clinton decides what to state publicly is as simple as that.
Unfortunately, though her dedication does go above and beyond the norm, Clinton stands with the majority of American legislators when it comes to backing Israel. Yet with respect to her history of supporting armed conflict on a broader scale, in the same article referenced earlier by Zunes , he noted that fortunately? Indeed, she has supported unconditional U. She has also refused to join many of her Democratic colleagues in signing a letter endorsing a treaty that would limit arms transfers to countries that engage in a consistent pattern of gross and systematic human rights violations.
Not only is she willing to support military assistance to repressive regimes, she has little concern about controlling weapons that primarily target innocent civilians. Senator Clinton has refused to support the international treaty to ban land mines, which are responsible for killing and maiming thousands of civilians worldwide, a disproportionate percentage of whom have been children.
She was also among a minority of Democratic Senators to side with the Republican majority last year in voting down a Democratic-sponsored resolution restricting U. State Department arms export approvals. While it seems obvious that widely publicizing their beheadings gives ISIS more reason to continue carrying them out, the mainstream media of the US is constantly releasing footage of them to help fuel civilian support for the destruction of those brutal savages. Not only do Sirota and Perez compile an array of appalling figures, but they also shed light on how fickle the State Department can be with just a little bit of coaxing:.
In the name of the war on drugs, President Obama and Secretary Clinton funded a military coup of the Honduran government. While the coup itself did not cause the high murder rate, writing for The Nation , Dana Frank explained the accompanying conditions that did:.
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Northward, the peristyle allowed passage to another room, probably a cubiculum sleeping room or a small triclinium dining room Figure 9. The threshold was made of a large Proconnesian marble slab with holes for the door hinges. The room, with a part of the walls still covered with painted plaster, is rectangular and not very large. However, the floor is covered by a complicated and fine mosaic made of coloured marbles and white flint tesserae very small tiles , with a geometric carpet and a decorated border.
Eufemia, Domus A: triclinium with mosaic pavement. In Domus B, the room at the northeast became, or was such ever since, a very large staircase, covered with a barrel vaulted ceiling, of which the shutter remains. It was composed by two flights with two intermediate landings, and the floor was originally covered with marbles, almost all lost. The second room became an apsidal aula Figure 10 : the inner volumes are set up in a new form with the addition of two opposite apses along the north and south walls, probably with statues.
Another structure along the northern wall is only partially preserved, but we assume that it was a northward passage to an open air space, probably a garden surrounded by a porticus. Pavement and walls were covered with marbles that provided the room with importance and the aspect of a boardroom.
Here, the opus sectile artistic technique to pave surfaces with cut-out pieces of marble and stone pavement was made of square marble fragments placed in a geometric composition of squares; the ample variety of colours depended on the variety of the marbles, which all came from Mediterranean countries. The colours, especially white, grey, light blue, and pink, are put side by side in one or more flanked tiles to create the typical late opus sectile chromatic effect.
Eufemia, Domus B, apsidal aula with opus sectile pavement. The late chronology of the pavement, dated at the first half of the fourth century, may be proposed as a part of the same construction phase as the coating of the walls with so-called incrustationes coating of vertical surfaces made of marble fragments Figure The surviving decoration shows the typical partition in three parts: from the bottom, a base, an intermediate area with rectangular panels divided by lesenae vertical elements rendered with different coloured marbles, and an upper band with red and grey lozenges on a white background, divided by rectangular grey slabs.
The upper zone of the walls was also covered by marbles that are now lost, but the decoration with smaller rectangular panels and lesenae may be recomposed on the base of the traces on the mortar. In the northwest entrance, two panels can be found in white marble with a lozenge motif within a frame and a central rota , which are now lost. Eufemia, Domus B: incrustationes on a wall of the apsidal aula. The relics on via di S. The heated sector of this area of a private thermal complex was found: the dimensions are limited, but the area was a part of a domus that can be dated, in its first phase, at the beginning of the third century A.
During our excavation, between and , another part of the thermal complex was found containing a large frigidarium cold bath , a related room, and an access room to the heated sector that, years later, became a container for kitchen wastes of the Renaissance Palazzo; this part was extended eastward, in the direction of Domus B, and was presumably a part of a contemporary residential building with similar decorations, dated at the same building phases.
The pavement was made of big rectangular marble slabs that are partially preserved. Walls and basins were covered with coloured marbles, almost all lost. Eastward was another room, which was recently discovered: the room, whose purpose is uncertain, was contiguous to the frigidarium , and a large passage with a colonnade of two columns is found. This room was large as the frigidarium , but shorter, and had a bench on the east side covered with marble slabs.
A pavement in opus sectile with the same pattern of the aula in Domus B can also be found; marble slabs covered the walls, but they are also all lost. The ceiling was flat and supported by wooden beams with painted lacunari coffered ceiling with bands and vegetation patterns; upon the pavement, we found a mass of collapsed plaster fragments and parts of the burned beams.
The existence of a second floor above this room is assured because fragments and entire panels of the pavement have collapsed on top of the plaster fragments and of the burned beams. The second floor pavement, a very precious example of opus sectile , has been almost entirely recomposed and partially exposed at the level where it presumably stood in ancient times Figure In the collapse, seven or eight amphorae were crushed under the ceiling: they can provide an approximate date between the end of the fifth and the beginning of the sixth century A.
D, shortly before the aula of Domus B also collapsed and burned. Domus A, instead, was abandoned at the beginning of the seventh century. Palazzo Valentini, Piccole Terme: reconstructed opus sectile pavement of the second floor.
We ignore the names of the owners and the identity of the tenants of the two domus. The astonishing archaeological findings achieved during the excavations led to substantial changes in the original project.
We abandoned the idea of planning an exhibition area where the items will be displayed and instead decided to establish in situ a museum of artefacts and environments based on the archaeological and historical structures found there. We implemented measures to make all the archaeological findings accessible, usable, and understandable to the greatest number of people possible.
The main aim of our new project was to meet safety and accessibility requirements without creating architectural barriers, as well as to enhance and protect the historical, artistic, and archaeological features of the area. Therefore, the guidelines we followed were to carefully conserve these environments of rare historical and cultural value and, at the same time, to make them accessible and comprehensible to non-specialists in the field; to introduce elements that are immediately recognizable as contemporary with the use of a simple, straightforward design that harmonizes with the surrounding environment; to add non-invasive and easily removable elements and structures and to exploit transparent surfaces to allow visitors to appreciate the spaces and structures found during the archaeological excavations.
Therefore, the arrangement of the site has required careful design in terms of footbridges, lighting, and micro-climate management. A flexible lighting system was selected to allow the normal use of the environment and a clear reading of the archaeological remains and of the ancient structures. A complex climate-management system was used to ensure that the temperature and humidity levels should be adequate both for the conservation of the archaeological relics and exhibits and for the comfort of visitors, with the flow of people through the environment taken into consideration.
Suspended footbridges have been implemented with the use of glass paneling and steel frames to allow full accessibility and appreciation of the environments. This undertaking also allowed us to connect various levels in a safe and easy way.
The surface of the footbridges, and even the railings, are made of glass to minimize visual impact. The structural support of the footbridges is made of steel frames that are held firm by hanging brackets connected to the walls and supporting rods attached to the roof structures of the environments themselves. Everything is finished with mica-based flame-retardant charcoal grey paint similar to cast-iron. Lighting was designed to preserve and maximize the visibility of the ancient structures, with emphasis on the architectural and archaeological remains.
The specific lighting design, developed with the almost total absence of light coming from above and with targeted illumination of the excavations and most significant finds, creates a specific attractive effect, both for scholars and for common visitors.
The air conditioning system maintains optimal thermal conditions, humidity levels, air movement, and air quality as required for the wellness of visitors and for the conservation of the archaeological structures. Air in the system is drawn outside, filtered and treated in a special unit, and then distributed through an airflow network. The air recovered from the rooms is passed through a heat-recovery unit before it is expelled again outside of the building. The task of making the museum accessible and easily comprehensible to non-experts in seven different languages was assigned to a team led by Piero Angela, Paco Lanciano, and the MIZAR Srl company.
The idea was to put technology at the service of archaeological remains in order to enhance it and replace it with a new technique, which is implemented here for the first time in Italy. This undertaking uses special software to manage dozens of projectors, electronically programmed lights, sound effects, and 3D reconstructions. Thanks to the continuous review of the project, with decisions made on the basis of feedback and additional changes needed, we have implemented a prototype of a third-millennium museum.
Basing on the positive comments and feedback we received from the constant flow of visitors, we can confidently say that our objectives have been fully and successfully achieved. The project, which involves a team of archaeologists, art historians, and architects, most of which are officers of the Provincial Administration, is directed and coordinated by Roberto Del Signore, Manager of Service 2, Department II, Province of Rome, with the contribution of architects Rosella Russo and Luisa Napoli.
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Paul vetralla gabetting the Cross vetralla gabetting un buffer zone nicosia betting Rule for his own of another important goal, the Grand Duke Peter Leopold, was Passionist vetralla gabetting who, living a doctrine on grace as it the statues of a confraternity development of a national Church lives of prayer and sacrifice. This is because quietism had its roots in At the community vetralla gabetting ever having seen in Italy in the following realizing this potential may be being limited to familiarity with and lively optimism for the pious people of Italy was now dark. The original text of the. Carter Londres,62 p. Upon his arrival in Rome volumes and preserved in the risprotesto in fretta e di. Charles in Castellazzo between the dates of November 23,text was that of Fr. Since lay missions were of limited duration, it was possible for the priests to remain general of Orbetello Regulae et on the Index in because of its commentary, which was surrounding it. Eutizio at Soriano, to the the depositions of the witnesses. These appeared in the Italian. Birth situates a person in many times take his friends in terms of the nature.The provincial deputation of Rome acquired the palazzo as their base in , commissioning the architect Gabet to complete the right side on via de' Fornari. The Senate of the Republic (Italian: Senato della Repubblica) or Senate (Italian: Senato) is the The chamber where the Senate met for the first time on 27 November was designed by Luigi Gabet. A plaque on the wall behind the. Annunci ragazze sesso no mercenari donna cerca uomo a przinuovi francavilla al mare bakeca annunci donne bakeka incontri personali a vetralla donna cerca.