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How are recent energy policy changes in Brazil, Mexico and elsewhere shaping the outlook for solar development in the medium to longer term? In a sign that such conflicts are continuing unabated, recent protests over an oil and gas project led to violent clashes and a political crisis for the Ollanta Humala government. February 26, Lender of Last Resort? With billions more promised by the end of the decade, what does Chinese finance mean for the region?

Are Chinese loans facilitating critical infrastructure development? What will mounting debt to China mean for Venezuela and Ecuador? February 24, Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean in By Samantha Carter On February 24th the Dialogue held its annual event on Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean, this time sharing estimates and relevant trends for remittances growth in February 24, Abortion and Reproductive Rights in Latin America: Implications for Democracy By Inter-American Dialogue and Center for Reproductive Rights Latin American countries have some of the most restrictive reproductive health laws and policies in the world, particularly with regard to abortion.

In part this stems from not recognizing reproductive freedom as a fundamental human right. However, imposing legal restrictions on abortion does not reduce the likelihood that women will seek this reproductive health service.

Instead, harsh laws compel women to risk their lives and health by seeking out unsafe abortions. February 23, How Much Are the U. Will such sticking points derail the thaw between Washington and Havana? To what extent are the United States and Cuba willing to negotiate on issues such as Guantanamo and protection of human rights in Cuba? How is the multi-billion-dollar foreign claims settlement process likely to play out?

This closed-door session offered an opportunity for US government officials to present their priorities and goals for the Summit to be held in Panama in April, and to solicit reactions and viewpoints from civil society leaders. Department of Transportation announced last month that Mexican trucking companies will be able to apply to make long-haul trips in the United States.

How will the change affect the countries' trade relationship? What will be the economic impact in the United States and Mexico? Have concerns raised in the United States about perceived safety hazards and pollution caused by Mexican trucks been adequately addressed? Nisman, who had been investigating the bombing of a Jewish community center in Buenos Aires, was found dead one day before he was expected to testify before congress about his accusations against president Kirchner and others in the government.

How has the government handled the situation, and how have the political class and Argentine society responded? With regional growth expected to be relatively low this year, will efforts at poverty reduction remain stalled? Can poverty be reduced in a low-growth environment? What policies or steps should governments take to address the issue? Do Argentine authorities have sufficient independence to get to the bottom of what happened?

Does the country's judiciary have enough strength and autonomy in major cases like that of the Jewish center bombing? Will the case have a chilling effect on future investigations? January 28, Latin America's Productivity Challenge: New approaches to Technical Education and Professional Training By Maria Oviedo A seminar held on January 28 convened key policymakers, academics, business professionals, and experts in workforce development to discuss the state of technical education and professional training in Latin America, review lessons from experience, and explore opportunities for reform in the region.

Meantime, the Andean country is suffering the world's highest rate of inflation and plunging prices for oil, its chief export, with parliamentary elections set for later this year. What does hold in store for Venezuela? To what extent is Maduro maintaining his grip on power?

What were the most important developments to come out of the meeting between the two presidents? What are the biggest challenges that lie ahead for U. The report concludes with timely suggestions for further research on Chinese energy engagement in the Americas. Because of the large role they play in Latin America, Chinese activities continue to command considerable attention, but there is no longer much surprise when China announces major new investments in Latin America, expansion of trade with different countries, high level visitors to the region, or regular participation in regional forums.

The presidents of Venezuela, Ecuador and Costa Rica are among the leaders attending. What is the state of China-Latin America relations? With China's slowing economy and Latin American economies facing lower prices for their commodity exports, to what extent will China and Latin American countries be able to help each other economically?

What does China stand to gain politically from closer engagement with Latin America and the Caribbean? Per capita income of the white population can be sixty percent higher to twice as high as the per capita income of the African descendant and indigenous populations. December 23, How Significant Will U. In addition to normalizing relations after a half century and opening new embassies in Washington and Havana, the countries have agreed to allow U.

How significant are the changes for banks and other financial services companies in the United States and elsewhere? How important of a market is Cuba for U. How much will improved commercial ties between Cuba and the United States depend upon the U. Congress' support for changing existing laws that restrict business with Cuba?

December 22, Cuba and the U. This was the first public event in Washington D. Michael Shifter, who was in Cuba at the time of the historic announcement, moderated the discussion. President Barack Obama on Wednesday announced plans to re-establish diplomatic ties with Cuba after more than 50 years, creating speculation that the move could lead to an easing of restrictions on economic and commercial ties affecting the country's energy sector.

Congress would require money transmitters to verify their customers' immigration status and collect a 7 percent penalty from customers who cannot prove that they are legally in the United States. Is this measure good policy? How would such a law affect companies that offer remittance services? How would Latin American and Caribbean countries that have large immigrant populations in the United States be affected. December 1, Citizen Insecurities and Democracy in the Americas, By Megan Cook The AmericasBarometer is one of the most comprehensive public opinion surveys available, covering 28 countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Elizabeth J. Mitchell A. President Barack Obama last week announced a plan to protect as many as five million undocumented immigrants from deportation. Obama's plan has drawn sharp criticism from Republican lawmakers who accuse him of overstepping his authority as president.

How will Obama's action affect U. Will Obama's move spur Congress to pass its own immigration reform, or will lawmakers focus on fighting the president's actions? What are the implications for businesses in the United States and Latin America? But Brazil also faces considerable public security challenges, reflected in a high homicide rate, the prevalence of organized crime, particularly drug trafficking, and widespread police corruption.

What are the recent trends in violent crime in Brazil? What strategies are the national and local governments pursuing to deal with this problem? What can be done to improve pacification and policing strategies? What are the opportunities for better state-federal cooperation? What has been the role of civil society organizations?

Morgenstern, Carlos Saladrigas Cuba's government on Nov. The country's foreign commerce minister expressed hopes that the projects being pitched by the government, ranging from an auto plant to a hog farm, would help spur Cuba's flagging economy. How interested are international companies in investing in Cuba? What benefits and drawbacks will companies encounter in investing there? What results have come from Cuba's four-year-old economic reform process?

November 12, Beyond Venezuela's Simmering Crisis By Marielle Coutrix he breakdown of talks between the government and the opposition Democratic Unity MUD Alliance earlier this summer does not bode well and further suggests that reconciliation and growth will be a lengthy and complex process.

Referring to the report Crisis Group published earlier this fall, both analysts argued that finding a sustainable solution to the Venezuelan crisis would require concerted political action by the international community. Peter Hakim also joined the conversation to evaluate the prospects of a strengthened US-Brazilian bilateral relationship. What sort of central bank will Vanoli run? How will Argentina's long-brewing currency woes play out?

In the lead-up to the meeting, experts weighed in on climate change policy in Latin America at a panel hosted by the Inter-American Dialogue in Washington, DC. The system, however, faces great challenges. In recent years, both the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights have been the subject of vigorous debate, reflecting changes in the political landscape and increasing demands on the system.

The forum focused on possible reforms to make the system more effective in defending human rights and advancing democratic principles throughout the Americas. It will featured the main ideas for reform that emerged from a private gathering at the University of Notre Dame earlier this year of human rights lawyers, scholars, diplomats, and judges involved in the Inter-American human rights system.

By Claudio X. To what extent would expanding preschool and daycare benefit Latin American countries, when even some industrialized countries like the United States do not offer those benefits? Are such initiatives likely to be realized in the region? Are there drawbacks to such plans? By Marcos Espinal, Katherine Bliss, Amy Nunn Source: Latin America Advisor Amid the Ebola outbreak, countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have heightened public health protections, such as Jamaica, where the government created a "National Coordinating Team" to respond to the threat of the virus, and the United States, which despite declaring its health system is superior has had health care workers contract the disease.

How well are countries in the Americas prepared to fight the spread of a disease like Ebola? Are resources to protect public health in the region being allocated in the right way? What implications would an outbreak of a disease like Ebola have in areas such as immigration policy and security? What more should aid agencies, governments, multilateral organizations and others be doing in the fight against Ebola?

Because Brazil now has four time zones, the presidential election tally was released after 8 p. However, the results of the gubernatorial elections were released before 8 p. October 28, Brazil's Presidential Election: Interpreting the Results By Marielle Coutrix Brazil is the seventh-largest economy in the world and is increasingly a global player. Just days after the vote, the Atlantic Council's Adrienne Arsht Latin America Center and the Inter-American Dialogue welcomed policy specialists to discuss what the results signal for Brazil's economy, Brazil's position on the global stage, and what to expect in and beyond.

Source: Latin America Advisor For the second year in a row, people in Latin America are less likely to say they live in countries where women are treated with respect and dignity than people in any other region, according to a recent Gallup survey. A median of 35 percent of adults across 22 Latin American countries said women are treated with respect in their nations, about half as high as percentages in any other region, Gallup said, though the figure disguises wide differences between countries.

How are women faring in Latin America, and what are the most important issues facing women in the region? Where has progress been made and how has that been achieved? What more needs to be done to promote gender equality? October 24, Politics and Possibilities for Immigration Reform By Marielle Coutrix The session explored the following questions: First, in the likely absence of Congressional action, what decisions and initiatives can be expected from President Obama after the mid-term elections?

Second, in what ways has the recent surge in child migrants from Central America shifted the debate over immigration reform? Third, how can immigration policy be linked with US-sponsored regional security initiatives? And finally, how will immigration issues likely affect the next presidential campaign — and outcome? Yet even with all the problems that reduced oil prices create for his administration, President Nicolas Maduro is doubling down on his current policies.

Still, some businesses that rely on modern logistics systems say planned projects aren't enough to meet their needs. Where is the greatest demand for improved infrastructure in the region, and how well do current plans address those needs? Has money already committed on infrastructure projects been spent wisely?

Does the region have adequate engineering talent and other human capital for needed projects? Can a country spend too much on infrastructure? What can investors expect from another Morales administration? What do Sunday's legislative election results suggest about Morales' governing strength and maneuverability moving ahead?

Will anticipated lower prices for natural gas, an important export commodity for Bolivia, undermine the recent momentum in the economy? What economic priorities would you advise Morales to set for his next term? October 10, Evo's Journey: Discussion of the Bolivian Elections By Marielle Coutrix Riding a strong economy and facing a weak and fragmented opposition, Bolivian president Evo Morales seems poised to secure a third term. Many attribute his commanding lead in the polls to a result of improvement in living standards.

Critics point to authoritarian tendencies and an unfair electoral process. Will Bolivia be able to sustain its positive economic and social performance? To what extent does the Bolivia case fit with regional trends, in the Andean countries and more widely? How does governance compare with that of its neighbors? From to , he headed the Latin American initiative at the Brookings Institution. October 1, Brasil, elecciones y clases medias By Peter Hakim Dialogue president emeritus Peter Hakim discusses the upcoming presidential election in Brazil and asserts the results will be decided by the country's middle class.

September 30, A New Course for Brazil? El sur de Guatemala, el norte de Honduras y el oeste de El Salvador se han visto especialmente afectados. The report concludes with timely suggestions for further research on Chinese mining in the Americas.

September 19, Immigration Policy: What's Next? The recent upsurge in unaccompanied minors in the southern border has re-framed the political discussion on immigration reform. In light of this announcement, what comes next? To what extent and in what ways will the elections likely impact the prospects for changes in US immigration policy?

How do local and national groups view the current moment and how are they responding? Among the challenges facing Gaviria are increasing the rate of investment, reducing unemployment, and accelerating economic growth. Some 1, past and present government officials, lawmakers, diplomats, academics, economists, journalists, policymakers, and other participants gathered in Washington, DC, on September 3 and 4 to discuss the most pressing challenges and opportunities in the Western Hemisphere.

September 11, Mexico energy reform gives Colombia the jitters By Arron Daugherty and Lisa Viscidi Source: Business News Americas In the first of a two-part series, Inter-American Dialogue's energy, climate change and extractive industries program director Lisa Viscidi talks to BNamericas about how the Colombian government is looking to increase oil reserves and maintain competitiveness as Mexico opens its hydrocarbons market.

The emphasis on absolute prohibition and strict law enforcement is giving way to strategies that allow for the decriminalization or legalization of some drugs, and sharply reduced penalties for many of those involved in the production and sale of drugs. The OAS produced a landmark report on hemispheric drug policies last year, which sets out the data and analysis that make clear the risks of sticking with current approaches.

It also carefully lays out the alternatives, which present their own risks and benefits. Since its publication, the report has substantially enriched policy discussions and debates about drugs and given new credibility to those who have been arguing for changes in policy.

It has also reinforced Latin American leadership on drug problems and related issues. Aunque Brasil tiene un buen acceso al financiamiento internacional, la cantidad de capital necesario para sus grandes proyectos de infraestructura sigue siendo enorme. Campos' death sent shockwaves through the country's political world and rattled financial markets just two months ahead of Brazil's October presidential election.

What effects will Campos' sudden death have on the race, including any potential runoff? Against the backdrop of acute fiscal pressures, internal divisions within the government are intensifying and are posing significant strains. The opposition is also split and has shown few signs of moving towards a more coherent political strategy.

Tens of thousands of children, mainly from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, have been apprehended at the U. This increase is also seen among adults, though to a lesser degree. As the United States, Mexico, and Central American countries struggle to address this crisis, debates have raged surrounding the humanitarian, legal, and political implications of any possible solution to this complex and troubling issue.

This memo aims to inform the current debate by integrating data on issues triggering this outflow while also introducing the perspectives of the people and communities they affect. Specifically, it draws on data from municipalities to analyze migrant hometowns in relation to human development,violence, and education. In addition, it presents the results of a nationwide survey in El Salvador and a survey of Central American migrants residing in the Washington, DC metropolitan area.

President Emeritus of the Dialogue Peter Hakim assesses the countries' creation of the new international development bank and a reserve arrangement to deal with financial crises in China Policy Review. How successful have Latin America and the Caribbean been in reaching the goals, and where have they fallen short? With governments now debating a series of sustainable development goals for the post agenda, what should be included? How useful are these kind of broad targets as measurements of progress in the region?

But more controversially, the newly approved laws will roll back pollution standards and fast-track environmental licensing for new energy and mining projects. By Michael Shifter Source: Foreign Policy Vladimir Putin's six-day Latin American tour this past week reveals that, in the face of tougher economic sanctions by the United States and perhaps the European Union over the Ukraine crisis, the Russian president will not be quiescent.

Anticipating an intensifying showdown on Ukraine, Putin took advantage of a meeting of the BRICS countries in Brazil to pursue a diplomatic initiative and call on political support in Cuba, Nicaragua, Argentina, and Brazil. Despite the broad agreement on the need to tackle the challenge, however, a fierce political debate in the United States has ensued. While a variety of proposals have been put forward to deal with the tragic and urgent situation, most of these are little more than stop-gap measures that seek to provide humane treatment to the children and either hasten or slow deportations of the minors.

July 16, Young Migrants and US Policy By Brigid Carmichael The discussion examined the evolving situation of these young migrants and how the US government and the governments of Central America are defining and responding to the challenges they present.

July 14, To keep kids from our borders, fix things farther south By Peter Hakim Source: Reuters As it confronts the recent influx of child migrants from Central America, the United States must not only reform its domestic immigration policy, but also reassess its drug, trade, and foreign-aid policies toward the region, writes Dialogue President Emeritus Peter Hakim.

And that applies not only to advancing the peace process but also to achieving broader social harmony. For the energy sector, Santos must build support from business and social movements for policies that promote investment while ensuring the greatest overall benefits for the country. Citando los altos costos de enfrentar el influjo, la diputada Rep. Candice Miller R-Mich. Citing the high costs of dealing with the influx, Rep.

What is behind the spike in unaccompanied children crossing the border? What should the United States and countries of origin do about the situation? How seriously is the issue affecting relations between the United States and its neighbors?

For many, its weak profits, soaring debts and stagnant oil production indicate that the company is struggling under the weight of government intervention. With presidential elections on the horizon, our panelists discussed the future of Brazilian energy policy, the outlook for oil and gas production, and the appetite for investment from international oil companies and Chinese state firms.

June 25, U. Despite this focus and 6. To address these persistent problems, Representatives Engel and Salmon have introduced the Western Hemisphere Drug Policy Commission Act, a law which would establish an independent directive to assess U. Ambassador Simons from the Organization of American States has also spearheaded efforts to understand the issue with greater clarity. Speaking to an audience on Capitol Hill, the three experts laid out their plans for this commission.

He now confronts a complicated political landscape that has been dominated by his predecessor, whose party continues to maintain a majority in Congress. Still, questions remain: Will Mexico see the projected boom in domestic gas production from shale and other resources?

Will renewable energy developers have sufficient incentives for investment? June 23, Financial Education and Inclusion in Mexico By Jean Coleman The results of a recent financial education project informed a wide-ranging discussion on financial inclusion strategies in Mexico, where less than one in three adults has an account at a formal financial institution and less than one in ten has saved money formally in the past year.

Immigration Reform? How important of a role did Cantor's stance on immigration play in his defeat? What does his loss mean for the prospects of immigration reform moving forward? Will other Republicans now be more reluctant to support a comprehensive reform measure? High power generation costs, deficient infrastructure, and barriers to competition are leading Mexico on a path toward soaring industrial electricity tariffs and unsustainable energy subsidies. But while the government has taken important steps toward establishing the right energy framework, much work remains to be done -- and the many potential challenges and uncertainties mean that the reform is unlikely to bear fruit in the short term.

The Dialogue hosted three experts to debate these and other issues. By Thomas Rideg, Ben Supple, Joel Korn Source: Latin America Advisor While it was originally expected that infrastructure investments and World Cup-related tourism would boost Brazil's economy, a recent Banco Santander report cast doubt on the effects that the sporting event, which begins Thursday, will have on Brazil's economy, noting that hotels and restaurants are expecting a slowdown and that additional holidays taken by Brazilians may dampen economic growth.

How is the World Cup affecting Brazil's economy, and will it have an overall negative or positive effect? Will infrastructure investments made for the Cup succeed in promoting long-term growth? June 10, The State of Brazil's South American Project By Matias Spektor The author takes stock of the progress and obstacles in Brazil's attempt to carve out a South American space as its principal geopolitical point of reference.

June 9, Book launch and symposium: Where is Brazil headed? By Murat Dagli With the World Cup only days away and what appear to be increasingly competitive presidential elections in October, the Dialogue hosted a spirited and stimulating exchange on this important country. June 9, Women and Politics in the Americas: Advances and Challenges By Josh Manley Despite making significant gains in Latin American government and politics, women in the region continue to face structural barriers that impede their full and equal participation in political life.

The two now enter a runoff election on June Murnane y Alejandro J. Murnane and Alejandro J. While it may be too early to speculate about their long-term legacies, their leadership engenders the questions: Would this be a more compassionate, more peaceful planet if more of it were ruled by women? This is among the many challenges awaiting the new administration in El Salvador that begins on June 1st. The announcement came as Rousseff tries to reverse slipping support ahead of the October presidential election in which she is seeking another term in office.

How much support will the announcement win for Rousseff at the polls? What else must she do in order to strengthen her candidacy? What factors between now and October will influence the election? How are Rousseff's rival presidential candidates faring ahead of the vote? Ever since, Chinese demand had driven world metals markets and economic growth among major metals exporters in Latin America and other regions.

Sixty percent of those surveyed disapproved of Maduro's administration, while 80 percent thought the country was going in the wrong direction. What factors are driving those poll numbers, and will Maduro continue losing support among Venezuelans? Might he be forced out of office before his term is scheduled to expire in ? Is Chavismo coming to an end, and what would most likely replace it?

Speaking at American University to an audience comprised mainly of students, Mujica also shared his vision of a world that is becoming more globalized and bilingual. The attached special technology edition of the Advisor offers viewpoints on these trends from six stakeholders and experts, as well as recent news in telecommunications, biotechnology and venture capital. What factors propelled Varela to victory?

What will be Varela's biggest challenges after taking office July 1? What does his election mean for businesses in Panama? Earlier this year, on February 10, Brussels adopted negotiating directives for a political dialogue and co-operation agreement with Havana. This is not a policy change from the past. Just as we want to support reform and modernization in Cuba, we have consistently raised human rights concerns which will remain at the core of this relationship.

Led by students and segments of the opposition, protests over the past two months have resulted in 41 deaths, over injured, and hundreds more imprisoned. Since most of the violence and repression has come at the hands of the government and its supporters, it is encouraging that they have agreed to a dialogue with opposition figures. By Paul Shortell On Wednesday, April 23rd, the Dialogue hosted a panel discussion on the recent boom in North American unconventional oil and gas and its implications for Latin America.

I inevitably had the task of toasting him at his farewell. Sadly, I am doing that again today. I complained to him once that he was never there for my farewells. He replied yes, that was true, but that he was always there to welcome me at the next stop. Who knows? Maybe once again. Peter Bell is a man to be remembered and celebrated. He was a great builder, and there remains so much to be built. He who constructed so many bridges when there are still so many bridges left to build!

Agency for International Development created and operated "ZunZuneo," a communications network similar to Twitter that had the aim of destabilizing the Cuban government, the Associated Press reported on April 3. USAID responded by saying the purpose of the program was "to create a platform for Cubans to speak freely among themselves, period," while the White House denied that it was a covert program.

How much of an impact will the revelations have on U. What does the controversy mean for bilateral issues such as the imprisonment in Cuba of former U. His opening comments will be followed by a wide-ranging exchange with participants. The event coincided with the launch of an updated version of the Dialogue's online China and Latin America Finance Database, the only online source for up-to-date information on Chinese finance in Latin America and the Caribbean.

April 7, Time is right to reset a bipartisan energy policy By Thomas F. That all changed with the surge in domestic production of oil and gas over the last decade. El informe se basa en resultados de la encuesta realizada a una muestra de 2. By Manuel Orozco with Mariellen Jewers Latin American and Caribbean migrants have experienced a modest improvement since the recession.

As of these remittances are similar to levels. Although more immigrants are saving as compared to , increases in income and full time work are not adequate enough to ensure the means to a robust improvement. Moreover, legal status is one factor affecting their financial strength.

What types of policy changes can be expected from his administration? To what extent will he succeed in working with Costa Rica's business community? Is Portillo's plea deal a turning point for anti-corruption efforts across Latin America? Are other efforts at combatting corruption in Latin Americamaking progress?

Which countries in the region are making strides in fighting corruption, and which are falling short? What specific anti-corruption policies have succeeded in the region and why? March 25, Massa dijo que no quiere relaciones carnales con EE. The concern is valid. But merely criticizing the current administration for being disengaged and indifferent to what is happening in the region is somewhat misplaced.

By Theodore M. More bad news came last week when lawmakers decided to install a special congressional committee to probe allegations of bribery involving Petrobras employees and a foreign company. How bad is Petrobras' situation today, and what bright spots are on the horizon? How big of a role is the government and politics playing in the company's present circumstances, and what policy changes would improve the outlook for Petrobras moving forward? Do these developments represent a significant advance for Mexico in the fight against drug trafficking, or are they just minor setbacks for the cartels?

Is there more his administration should be doing that it is not? Its mandate was was expanded following the devastating earthquake in After a decade of operations and continued problems in Haiti, however, there is serious debate over the appropriate level and timing of this support.

What would the advancement of talks between Argentina and the Paris Club mean for the country? What stands in the way of a breakthrough? Runner-up Norman Quijano, however, can still appeal. How long will the dispute over the contested election drag on?

What do the regions have to offer each other economically? What businesses stand to gain from stronger ties? March 12, Bachelet's regional challenges By Michael Shifter Source: La Tercera Even before Michelle Bachelet began her second term she got a taste of the difficult regional climate she will have to deal with over the next four years.

The Venezuela crisis — which was hard to ignore during her inauguration — exposes and highlights Latin America's deep political polarization. Pero seamos capaces de distinguir las enormes posibilidades del momento actual de las dificultades inevitables de gobernar. La oportunidad no visita a los pesimistas, viene con el optimismo.

A recent boom in natural gas production offers an opportunity for the region to reduce its dependence on imported oil and address high and rising energy costs. This paper reviews the status of natural gas projects in Central America and evaluates the challenges of natural gas use in the electricity sector. At the same time, we call on the international community to make a concerted effort to strengthen democracy and preserve the peace in Venezuela. No question, there are many parallels between the South American and Eastern European nations.

Has US aid effectively reversed climbing homicide and crime rates? What did the summit accomplish, and on what issues did it fall short of its potential? One in three Latin American households has a family member living abroad. Additionally, approximately 70 percent of migrants from the region send remittances home. The authors evaluate the three principal forms of Sino-Latin interaction in the energy sector.

Arriagada and Espinasa conclude that only first of these is conducted in a way that is satisfactory to both parties, and that many gains from cooperation remain unrealized. The demonstrations were punctuated on Feb. Why did these protests erupt now, and why did they turn deadly this time? Does the situation pose a threat to Maduro's government? Governments must not only adopt policies to restore growth and preserve macroeconomic stability; they must also strive to improve opportunities for less advantaged groups to participate in the economy and contribute to growth.

Las respuestas no son claras. Will he make any concessions to the protesters? The answers are unclear. They leaves open, however, the question of what the specific learning goals should be. The report card analyzes the achievements and challenges of the Nicaraguan education system in ten key areas and offers a series of policy recommendations. February 19, Why has the level of remittances to the region stagnated?

A few countries, including Bolivia, Honduras and Guatemala, saw significant growth, but several others like Jamaica or El Salvador saw no growth, while remittances decreased to countries including Mexico and Brazil. What is behind the stagnant remittances to the region? Which countries' economies will feel the most pain? Will the current trends continue? February 7, The Implications of El Salvador's Elections By Caitlin Reilly Although experts predict that the ruling left-wing FMLN party will hold on to power in El Salvador's March 9 elections, whoever wins faces a complex set of challenges - a sluggish economy, intense political polarization, and a still highly dangerous, although slightly improving, security situation.

Despite having ranked third or fourth in every poll taken during the campaign cycle, Solis captured Most of the changes have been positive. The region has grown economically, poverty and inequality rates have fallen, and in most countries democratic governance and pragmatic politics have made notable strides. On the negative side of the ledger is spreading criminality in many countries, often fueled by a widespread drug trade and other illicit activities.

The result has been institutional fragility and persistent corruption. February 4, From distant neighbors to natural partners By Thomas F. Besides the concrete achievements of increased trade and investment, we see a striking change in tone from officials on both sides, from the suspicion and defensiveness of generations past to confidence, optimism and, increasingly, trust.

Cunningham Source: Huffington Post In his State of the Union address last week, President Obama took a good first step in asking Congress to provide the tools he needs to close two of the most ambitious trade deals in U. But he faces an immediate challenge from within his party that could imperil negotiations, with huge stakes for the U.

January 31, How Important Is U. Fast-Track Authority for Trade Deals? By Peter Hakim, Cameron T. Combs, Arturo Sarukhan, and James R. Senators Baucus and Hatch and Rep. Camp introduced a bipartisan Trade Promotion Authority bill that would give the president the authority to negotiate trade accords that Congress would then be able to approve or reject, but not amend. How important is fast-track authority for pending trade deals? January 26, Why the U. Colorado and Washington, however, had already beaten them to the punch, and a handful of other states are expected soon to follow suit.

Progress on both fronts, however, has been limited. Hornbeck Since the turn of the millennium, trade and investment between the United States and Latin America and the Caribbean LAC have continued to grow and transform—even in the face of global economic volatility and increased competitiveness within the world trading system. This paper presents an overview of US-Latin America trade and investment from to , with special attention paid to Mexico and Brazil, the two largest LAC economies.

These initiatives should have a deep impact on the global trade and investment architecture of the coming decades. It was the first comprehensive free trade agreement to join developed and developing nations and it has served as a template for our subsequent trade negotiations. Why has inequality continued to persist in the Americas? It is about whether the Brazilian government rejected the Boeing planes because it had lost confidence in the US government or wanted to make it pay a price for dismissing Brazilian concerns about surveillance.

The commercial and political ties between Beijing and the region will undoubtedly continue to grow in the coming years as Chinese firms and diplomats form deeper relationships with their counterparts in the Western hemisphere, with significant implications for Latin American countries as well as the United States. Its economic revival has petered out as commodity prices have stagnated, capital flows have reversed and left the region, and macroeconomic policies remain complacent.

The key question is whether Latin American countries will face a serious internal and external crisis, something they thought they had left behind. It reminds us that we can learn from the experience of others, without suggesting that we should mechanically copy policies and programs.

January 8, China eyes overseas agriculture to achieve food security By Margaret Myers Source: Caixin Online As has been the case since the Mao era, self-sufficiency in staple foods is a primary objective of the Communist Party. Latin America can expect China to increase its interest in agriculture as it seeks to complement domestic production with imports.

January 7, U. The critical question, however, is not where inter-American relations stand today, but where they are headed in the coming decades. An examination of three major scenarios is meant to contribute to an understanding of the principal factors that will likely shape the future of hemispheric affairs.

Secretary of State Kerry said recently that he is exploring the possibility of deepening the North American Free Trade Agreement to strengthen trade ties with Canada and Mexico with an eye toward expanding the agreement to include other countries in the hemisphere. How significant of a priority should strengthening NAFTA be as compared to other trade agreements, and would other countries be interested in participating? All have long histories and huge implications.

They are still evolving, and bear close watching in Todas tienen largas historias y enormes implicaciones. What will drive the region's economic growth in the coming year? Which countries will experience solid economic expansion in , and which will struggle? Where have government policies done the most good or damage to growth? December 20, What Does Hold for U.

To what extent will the Obama administration seek to strengthen ties in the region? How much will Latin American countries want to work with the United States? It has far and beyond the most people living with access to marriage equality, not to mention the largest pride celebration on Earth. Many countries in the Americas are expanding their safeguards against discrimination and boast some of the world's most vibrant LGBT movements.

But not everything is advancing in a positive direction. Los argumentos son los mismos, pero los protagonistas rotan. December 16, Bachelet 2. December 15, It's Time for Nafta 2. If there is one thing supporters and critics of this pact have always agreed on, it is the size of the stakes.

In November , Mr. Clinton, facing fierce opposition within his party, implored Congress to pass Nafta as a vote for the country's future, a sign that "we still have confidence in ourselves and our potential. But they are also highly local phenomena; their precise roots are as unique as the motive behind a single crime. This paradox was a central theme during a meeting of the Congressional Members Working Group focused on Central America.

How can cooperation and international assistance on security issues adapt to local realities without becoming hopelessly complex? Members discussed the wide-ranging challenges facing Colombia and the region. The conversation was closed and off-the-record. December 2, A Conversation on the Brazilian Economy By Paul Shortell In the past two years, however, economic growth has slowed and investment has fallen. Where is the region's largest economy headed? December 2, U.

Yet, despite the continuing rhetoric, neither government has been willing to invest much in advancing or upgrading the relationship. The elections, which come amidst rising levels of unemployment, crime, violence, and widespread public discontent, have huge implications for the country's future. November 27, Why and How Latin America Should Think About the Future By Sergio Bitar Over the past decade, many Latin American governments have made significant strides in developing domestic policies that have succeeded in reducing poverty and strengthening democratic institutions.

It is striking how much of his short presidency —- just days -- was related to Latin America. Public officials, however, have been largely unable to develop policies that effectively leverage the economic activities of migrants and harness their full economic potential.

By Abraham F. Lowenthal The bitter impasse finally, if temporarily, resolved in Washington last week made it absolutely evident to all that the US faces serious problems. These problems did not suddenly arise, nor are they limited to the showdown of government activities and services and the raising the national debt limit. The difficulties are not only political, but also economic and social; they have developed over many years, and they are by no means resolved. Secretary of State John Kerry said in a speech Monday at the Organization of American States, as he called for the Cuban government to "embrace a broader political reform agenda.

November 18, Remarks on U. Among the most important modifications was the creation of a Judiciary Council. Will the country long seen as a laboratory for policy innovation continue to be a reference for a region that is seeking to address longstanding inequalities, while maintaining democracy and economic growth? November 7, A Conversation with the Former President of Bolivia, Jorge Quiroga By Megan Cook "Democracy is under siege" in Bolivia, the country's former president and a current opposition leader, Jorge Quiroga, said last week at the Inter-American Dialogue in a presentation blasting the current government's record on democratic governance.

Meyer Source: Latin America Advisor In early October, Guatemala's president, members of his cabinet, as well as business and religious leaders in the Central American nation agreed to work together to reduce malnutrition, improve education and provide youths with the skills necessary to be successful in the labor market. Will the accord be implemented successfully and achieve its goals? November 6, Latin America's Oil Sector: A Lost Opportunity By Tim Stackhouse Despite its prodigious petroleum reserves and high world oil price over the past decade, many countries in Latin America are experiencing declining production.

What explains this apparent paradox? Where do Ibero-American relations now stand? How has this law impacted Ecuador's civil society? The elections will be critical in shaping the rest of her term. Why have businesses operating in Colombia become so pessimistic? To what extent have the policies of President Juan Manuel Santos helped or hindered businesses?

Which sectors have thrived during Santos' administration, and which have struggled? Ambassador Richard Bernal discusses China's emerging role as an investor in the region. The opportunities for bilateral cooperation are countless. Yet U. Unfortunately, hope for better relations quickly faded with the recent expulsion of US and Venezuelan diplomats.

Was the trip a success for Maduro? For China? September 26, What can we expect from Pope Francis? Can Latin America overcome political, geological, and economic challenges? Will it live up to its shale gas potential? Meanwhile, tensions between Nicaragua and Colombia over their maritime boundaries, ostensibly settled by an International Court of Justice ruling late last year, have been reignited.

What is behind Ortega's bellicose statements? What does this historic decision mean for the increasingly important US-Brazilian bilateral relationship? September 19, State of the Remittance Industry: Trends and Challenges By Eric Johnson The Dialogue hosted a panel discussion on the current state of the remittance industry featuring representatives from many of the leading money transfer companies.

By James R. The reforms would impose new taxes on the country's top earners as well as on capital gains. How important are tax system reforms for Mexico's economy? Do the specific parts of the reform address the right areas? Yet not so long ago, US foreign policy decision-making was far less troubled by principle.

From Nixon to Obama, the US has made some progress in the past 40 years. It became the second country, after Canada, to legalize same-sex marriage in the hemisphere in A year later, the national congress passed landmark legislation allowing transgender individuals access to free gender reassignment surgery and hormone therapy.

What are the most important parts of the overhaul, and how can they be implemented in the face of teacher resistance? Sustained levels of Chinese investment across a range of sectors from natural resources to manufacturing to services have introduced an important dimension to the bilateral relationship. September 9, Development vs. He will try to persuade a very skeptical nation. It is never easy to predict what will happen once military action is underway, but it is hard to recall when uncertainties have been greater.

September 4, Is Legalization Possible? What factors are driving demographic trends in Latin America and the Caribbean? Uruguay, the smallest country in the region, has been the first, however, to openly rebel. By Juan Rada, Miguel A. What are the best practices for engaging citizens in the region through technology? The Congress is in recess for five weeks, until early September.

When lawmakers return, they will face a number of crucial battles, including on the budget. In such a polarized political environment, none of these will be easy. The drop-off was attributed mainly to a decline in Chinese lending to Venezuela.

How important is Chinese lending to the region today? What does the decline in funding from China mean for Venezuela and the region as a whole? What will the future hold for Chinese lending to Latin America and the Caribbean? August 7, What's in Store for Venezuela? What is next for the country? The visit marked his first foreign trip as leader of the Roman Catholic church. Standing next to the pontiff, President Dilma Rousseff called for cooperation with the church to combat poverty and hunger.

Why did Francis choose Brazil for his first foreign trip as pope? Was the trip a success, and for whom? Will the visit have any lasting consequences for Brazilian society, or the church's role in that country? July 30, China and the U. Ambassador Eduardo Medina Mora and Carnegie expert Uri Dadush joined the Dialogue to discuss just how Mexico can grow to assume the regional and global leadership role it aspires to.

July 30, China y EE. July 27, Now What, Madam President? Paulo Although Brazilians love crowds, it was a great surprise to virtually everyone in Brazil when more than a million protestors showed up on the streets of more than cities. July 23, Latin American Perceptions of China By Margaret Myers China is generally viewed positively, particularly amongst younger generations, who increasingly believe that China has or will replace the US as the world's superpower.

The Dialogue and the Pew Research Center hosted a discussion on the findings of a new Pew report on the subject. What kinds of regulatory and institutional frameworks best support the contributions of remittances to local development? What has been the impact of remittances on migrants and their families? Drawing on empirical data from five continents and firmly grounded in theory, Orozco's work reflects the evolution of our understanding about the importance of migrant remittances and the policies that govern them.

By Lisa Abrego Central American governments have had, at best, mixed success in implanting democratic institutions, the rule of law, and productive market economies. Former Nicaraguan Ambassador and political analyst Arturo Cruz presented his just published paper exploring the multiple challenges and risks confronting democratic stability in the region at the Inter-American Dialogue on July Though he is now seeking temporary asylum from Russia, where he has been stranded in the Moscow airport, only a few nations, all in Latin America, have been openly receptive to his pleas.

Energy Expert David Mares analyzes the political, economic and environmental challenges that countries face in developing the next generation of hydrocarbon resources. Participants included a select group of experts on China-Latin America relations, as well as representatives from the Chinese delegation and from the U. State Department.

Why are some governments in the region so eager to thumb their noses at the United States? Are these protests isolated events with unique causes or are there threads that unify them? July 3, Protests in Brazil: Why Now? Wang, Z. On the origin of contact-electrification.

Today, 30, 34? Guo et al. ACS Nano, 11, ? Wang, J. Achieving ultrahigh triboelectric charge density for efficient energy harvesting. Singh, H. Nano Energy 51, ? Resume : The piezopotential generated in non-centrosymmetric crystals under external mechanical stimuli can be exploited to modulate the contact characteristics at the metal-semiconductor interface. The extent of electric modulation by the piezopotential was found to be moderate. This is mainly because the piezopotential was designed to alter the band bend of the semiconductor layer, which changed the injection barrier by 0.

We propose an efficient method to utilize the piezopotential for modulating Schottky barrier, i. This was done by capacitively coupling the piezoelectric material with a Schottky barrier SB - tunable graphene electrode, using an ion gel electrolyte.

Through capacitive coupling, the piezopotential could modulate the work function of a graphene electrode by 0. This was visualized directly using Kelvin probe force microscopy experiments for the first time. Consequently, a piezoelectric nanogenerator PENG could change the current density of the semiconductor layer by more than three orders of magnitude with strain, and yield a high current density larger than Multistage modulation of the height of the SB at the junction was also successfully demonstrated by integrating two PENGs with ion gel.

This work presents an efficient method for harnessing the piezopotential generated from PENG to actively control the operation of flexible electronics through external mechanical stimuli. Resume : Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries LIBs are promising power sources that are currently used in many portable electronic devices and electric vehicles due to their high energy density, high operating voltage, low self-discharge, long cycle-life, and low toxicity.

One of the interesting and promising polymers for preparation of solid polymer electrolytes SPEs is poly dimethylsiloxane PDMS which has a very low Tg of oC, high flexibility of the polymer chains and large free volume. First, PDMS was acrylated with acryloyl chloride. After, polymer blend with photoinitiator casted onto glass plate and exposed to UV-crosslinking for 3 min. Obtained films were dried under vacuum at 60? All performed procedure was conducted in the argon-filled glove box.

FTIR spectroscopies were used to confirm the structure of polymer films. According to TGA results main degradation of polymer electrolytes starts from about oC. Obtained transparent SPEs have excellent mechanical properties and good flexibility. Coin cells were assembled with blocking electrodes using prepared SPEs and exhibited electrochemical stability above 4. The ionic conductivities were determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS analysis.

The impedance measurements were carried out with frequency ranges from 10 Hz to 1 MHz from room temperature to 90 oC with a temperature interval of 5 oC. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the targeted state program BR?

Resume : With a three-electron redox-mechanism-based high capacity, Al-ion-based electrochemical battery capacitor systems are expected to provide high capacity, low cost and high safety to meet the increasing energy demands. The freestanding composite film with a hierarchical porous structure is prepared through vacuum-assisted curing of a mixed dispersion containing PEDOT:PSS on carbon cloth substrate. Resume : Galvanic replacement GR reactions have emerged as a versatile tool in the creation of hybrid materials.

Traditionally, a GR reaction involves exchange of metal cations which occur due to the favorable difference in the electrochemical potentials of the two metals involved. The interface allows stabilization of the oxidation state of the outgoing metal ion as well as the incoming metal during the GR process. However, a GR reaction involving an exchange of two anions has not been achieved.

The rich optical property of CuTCNQ, which is well-known, is further enhanced due to the formation of a hybrid and results in a significant enhancement of redox catalytic reactions under light illumination. However, solution processed perovskite PS film contains many charge traps at the grain boundaries and on the surface, leading to increased non-radiative recombination, and instability of the PS film in air due to humidity.

Surface passivation is a common solution for minimizing charge traps and protecting the surface from the moisture in air. Resume : Drastic industrialization and increasing use of fossil fuels caused tremendous climate change by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration.

So development of photocatalyst for reducing carbon dioxide to useful fuel with high efficiency and stability is great issue. In natural photosynthesis, leaf shows significant efficiency and stability by combination of three dimensional structure and Z-scheme catalytic system. Three dimensional structure of copper oxide nanowire mesh enhanced adsorption, mass transportation.

And Z-schematic electron flow between bismuth vanadate and copper oxide enhanced charge separation and transport with high redox potential. And also mediation by ultrathin carbon layer enhances charge transport between two catalysts and enhances stability by protecting copper oxide. And also shows methane production that is higher hydrocarbon.

This work provides ideal artificial photosynthesis system for carbon dioxide reduction with high conversion rate and stability that can be developed as practical catalyst for sustainable fuel synthesis and solution of environmental problem. Resume : Porphyrins as a new class of hole transporter represent a promising alternative for perovskite solar cells since the initial study in In this poster, we present a series of Prophyrin-based molecules designed and optimized as hole transporting materials HTMs for perovskite solar cells.

The rational design concepts and structural effect on their photovoltaic performance are investigated. We find that the electronic communication between molecules significantly influences the carrier transporting behavior and their PV characteristics. Structural modification by using dimeric porphyrin core unit yields brand new efficient porphyrin HTM WT3 which improves device efficiency up to The red-shift and broaden absorption spectra of spin-coated solid film is a highly relevant indicator for the molecule coupling and thus corresponds well to the device performances.

Apart from the excellent power conversion efficiency, the porphyrin-based HTMs also demonstrated good stability and moisture resistance with appropriate design. They are surface-functionalized carbonaceous nanoparticles with very good optical properties, like the intense fluorescence which can be tuned in visible by changing the excitation wavelength.

These characteristics along with their non-toxicity and low fabrication costs make CQDs attractive for photocatalysis, optoelectronics, or biological applications. CQDs come into several structural types like graphene quantum dots, graphite quantum dots several graphene quantum dots in stacked structucture , or amorphous carbon quantum dots.

Despite many advances, several important issues still remain open regarding the optical response of CQDs such as their interaction with the environment or the origin of fluorescence tunability. Our calculations are consistent with the scenario by which the photoluminescence response is a combination of at least two sources: one is the core with subsequent quantization effects and the other resides in functional groups that induce levels in the bandgap. The most promising lead-free candidate has been regarded as tin-based halide perovskite materials due to their similar or even better optical properties to lead-based counterparts such as energy bandgap and charge mobility.

However, their solar cells suffer from low open-circuit voltages VOC arising from mismatched energy levels between tin-based perovskite layer and charge transporting layers CTLs in their structure. In this presentation, we report that a new device structure for tin-based perovskite solar cell. As a result, the newly designed tin-based perovskite solar cell achieves a power conversion efficiency of 7.

This work highlights the importance of redesigning device structures for Sn-based perovskite solar cells. Resume : Layered Mo based semiconductors with mono- or few-layer thickness can potentially advance many applications, ranging from optoelectronics, photo catalysis and sensors. By first-principles DFT calculations at HSE06 level and Boltzmann transport theory, we explore the electronic, charge transport and optical properties of relevant lamellar materials: alpha-MoO3 with large band gap 2.

To tune their properties, we modify their respective chemical compositions by exchanging O and S inside the two materials at various concentrations. Substituting sulfur atoms by oxygen atoms on 2H-MoS2 does not alter significantly the electronic band gap.

This theoretical work opens new perspectives for the further investigation of lamellar oxy-sulfide materials. In particular, we are currently investigating the corresponding properties of monolayer structure of the corresponding 2D materials. Resume : Solar water evaporation has been considered as a promising technique to harvest solar energy for the practicable water purification.

However, current technology for solar water purification is severely hindering by insufficient solar utilization and complicated operation. Thus, achieving efficient solar absorber that can strengthen the solar energy utilization and improve water purification efficiency remain highly desirable. Herein, we report the development of charge-transfer cocrystals CTC that afford absorption-tunable, ultra-stable organic solar absorbers to support efficient water evaporation.

By modulating the combination of both donor and acceptor units through charge-transfer effects, full-solar absorbing performance can be realized to achieve good photothermal conversion. This CTC-doped 3D scaffold is designed and fabricated, and our design results in an efficient solar- evaporation rate of 1. Importantly, water purification of seawater, dyestuff pollution, heavy metal, and microorganism pollution are realized and achieve a high purification efficiency of The charge-transfer-mediated approach may offer a major step forward in manufacturing solar absorbers toward practical water purification.

Resume : Co-evaporation can fabricate high quality perovskite absorbers for solar cells, but this fabrication route is still largely underexplored, as most research groups focus on cheap and fast, but industrially unattractive wet-chemical processes. At MLU, we develop dynamic co-evaporation processes for mixed halide perovskites and try to find new material combination with better performance and higher stability. In this contribution, we investigate the film formation during the growth of hybrid lead halide perovskites by co-evaporation with the aid of in situ XRD diagnostics.

We are able to resolve secondary phases already during growth and our time-resolved measurements allows us to report on the kinetics of film formation and thermal degradation. Resume : Halide perovskites hold exceptional promise as cheap, low temperature solution-processed optoelectronic materials. Yet they are hindered by poor structural and chemical stability, rapidly degrading when exposed to moisture or air.

We demonstrate a solution-phase method for infiltrating methylammonium lead bromide perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3, or MAPbBr3 into nanoporous GaN which preserved the green photoluminescence of the perovskite after up to 1 year of storage under ambient conditions. Besides a protective effect, confinement within the porous GaN matrix also resulted in a blueshift of the perovskite emission with decreasing pore size, suggesting an additional templating effect of the pores on the size of the perovskite crystals within.

We investigate the dynamic of the charge recombination process in perovskite, proving the confinement effect of GaN on perovskite. We anticipate that our method may be generalized to related perovskite materials, offering a route to producing composites of interest for use in optoelectronic devices for various applications.

Resume : Perovskite nanomaterials have attracted extensive attention in recent decade owing to their high photoluminescence quantum yield, narrow emission spectrum, high colour purity, and emission wavelength tunable across the entire visible spectrum.

Therefore, perovskite nanomaterials are promising candidates for next-generation solid-state lighting sources and display devices. Nevertheless, short working lifetime and non-radiative losses are considered as major problems of these material systems. These problems need to be resolved urgently for practical applications of perovskite light emitters.

In my contribution, I will present green perovskite nanocrystals CsPbBr3 and FAPbBr3 synthesized by a new, fast and oleic-acid-free synthetic method at room temperature. I will also share our results on the dynamics of emissive excitons of CsPbBr3 and FAPbBr3 nanocrystals studied by transient absorption spectroscopy and ultrafast fluorescence up-conversion spectroscopy.

Such experiments allow observing how the population and energy of the excited states evolve in real time. In addition, I will present the results of optimizations of synthetic processes that are carried out to reduce non-radiative recombination and improve the efficiency of perovskites QDs LED systems.

Resume : Utilizing bulky cation molecules as processing additives in perovskite solar cells PSC is a promising approach to improve device performance and stability through defect passivation. However, high levels of additives can result in an undesirable reduction in device power conversion efficiency PCE due to the insulating behavior of additive.

Here we report our investigations into a new class of bulky cation. The results discuss how the size, concentration, and counterion of the bulky cations affect performance in PSCs. Resume : Incorporating organic polymers for defects passivation has been used for developing high performance perovskite solar cells PVSCs. However, the role of polymers on the ion migration and degradation is not yet fully understood. Meanwhile, rare studies investigated the operational stability of devices to electrical stressing.

Here, a p-type polymer PCE10 with strong polar group is used as the additive in precursor to study their effects on device performance and operational stability, and a mono-polymer polystyrene PS with negligible dipole is chosen as a reference material for comparison.

From the detailed investigations, we find that no passivation effect from the chosen polymer in perovskite as has been commonly ascribed in the community. The admittance measurement results illustrate that the improved stability is ascribed to the suppression effect of PCE10 on ion dissociation and migration during operation. The electrical stressing tolerance increased dramatically after incorporating additive, which attributed to the obviously reduced mobile ion concentration.

This study demonstrates a facile strategy to enhance device stability without sacrificing efficiency and provides insight into the thorough understanding on the suppression effect of polymer on the ion dissociation and degradation in perovskite.

Resume : The trap states in methylammonium lead iodide MAPbI3 perovskites are the main factor for the loss of the photogenerated charges in the solar cells, i. The deactivation of the trap states can improve the power conversion efficiency. Optical illumination is one of methods to execute the de-activation of trap states. The de-activation kinetics of trap states is investigated by the photoluminescence PL. The PL intensity increases with time because of the de-activation of trap states.

The increase time of PL intensity with illumination power is studied. The saturation time constant of PL intensity is inversely proportional to the illumination power, and the equation for the de-activation is obtained. It is found the de-activation is due to the photoreaction to MAPbI3, but not the filling of the trap states. This results shed light on the properties of the trap states in MAPbI3. Resume : Thin films of metal chalogenides have been widely used in different applications such as superconducting films, magnetic films, diamond-like films, surface modification, microelectronic devices, hard coatings, photoconductors, IR detectors, solar selective coatings, optical imaging, solar cells, sensors, optical mass memories.

The aim of this work is to investigate the conductivity of CdS and CuS films under the light and without it, in order to determine their prospects for organic optoelectronics. The study found that the conductivity of polymer films is independent of light. The basic mechanisms of conductivity are established, depending on the concentration of nanocrystals in the polymers.

Photoluminescence intensity of the nanocomposite thin? PL nanocrystals CdS impurities, both undetected and doped with low concentrations of Cu and Zn caused by radiation recombination of nonequilibrium charge on their surface defects. Resume : Two-dimensional molecular crystals[1,2] 2DMCs featuring a monolayer ML or few layers of molecules, possess advantages such as long-range molecular ordering, minimized concentration of charge traps, the absence of grain boundaries, providing exciting prospects for opto electronic applications.

Using n-type doping to enhance the electronic conductivity of organic semiconductors are commonly used in devices and hence of interest to explore for 2DMCs. We compared the 2DMCs films with doping of more disordered spin-coated films, exploring the effect of crystallinity and localization on the doping-induced evolution of the induced polaronic gap states. B , 86, Resume : Colloidal semiconductor nanoplatelets NPLs are regarded as a new, highly promising class of optoelectronic materials thanks to their efficient and narrowband luminescence.

NPL-LEDs typically take advantage of the incorporation of organic or inorganic interfacial layers as charge regulators to ensure charge balancing and high performance. However, as recently reported, the operational stability of devices is mostly affected by the intrinsic acidity and high hygroscopic nature of PEDOT:PSS.

In this communication, we are proposing a new hybrid ink as interfacial layer, based on a self-doped conductive conjugated polyelectrolyte and exfoliated molybdenum disulfide MoS2 flakes as an alternative to PEDOT:PSS with the main aim to prolong the lifetime of multilayer solution-processed NPL-LEDs. The ink features a neutral pH and a tunable hydrophobicity driven by the MoS2 content. Resume : Organic electrochemical transistors OECTs based logic circuits have broad applications in flexible sensors, actuators, and artificial synapses.

However, most of the reported OECTs circuits are only constructed by p-type transistors, while complementary circuits are less developed. Complementary circuits can simplify circuit design, reduce device power consumption, and improve switching performance.

Here, we reported the first example of flexible all-printed complementary OECT logic circuits. Employing surfactant-free p-type and n-type organic semiconductor inks in alcohol, complementary OECT logic circuits are printed by simple screen and inkjet printing. With rational designed hydrogel electrolyte, these solid-state complementary OECT logic circuits presents high electrical performance, with inverter switching gain value of up to 25 at a supply voltage below 0.

We demonstrate these printed complementary OECT logic circuits can be used in signal monitoring and amplification of human electrooculography and plants movement. Resume : Dispersed ruthenium oxide RuO2 nanoparticles on W18O49 nanorods with rich oxygen vacancy has been generated by a facile, low-cost two-step solvothermal approach and subsequently characterized for energy storage application.

The rational design and controlled synthesis of the hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine-tuning of the properties and functions. The remarkable electrochemical activity of the nanostructure is due to the development of oxygen vacancy, RuO2 active sites, and nanostructure networks which maximize the available sites and surface area for the electrolyte ions.

The Galvanostatic charging-discharging GCD mechanism of the hybrid nanostructure suggests the transformation from the Pseudocapacitor? These findings will have a profound effect on understanding and mechanism of the surface-induced vacancy to the process of electrochemical activity in terms of energy storage. Resume : Multiple metal selenides MMSs have drawn pronounced attraction as promising anodes for sodium ion batteries SIBs owing to their greatly enhanced electrochemical performances originating from the superior intrinsic conductivities and richer redox sites, compared to single-metal chalcogenides.

Moreover, the use of binder in electrode manufacturing not only causes dead weight inclusion, but also reduces the exposed surface area of active material. Carbon fiber cores not only act as intimate current collecting conductive highways for electron transport but also provide strength needed for self-standing electrode of battery. A simple and scalable hydrothermal strategy was employed with to prepare nanowire or nanosphere like morphologies of precursors were prepared under different conditions which were then selenized under optimized conditions to obtain corresponding MMSs.

Structure robustness of cycled electrodes was also evaluated via ex-situ X-ray diffraction and various microscopic analysis techniques. We are confident that the presented strategy will pave the way for facile synthesis of a large family of MMSs with carbon fiber hybrids which are the potential materials for energy storage and conversion systems.

Charge transport is intrinsically dependent on processes occurring across multiple lengthscales. In order to access order parameters at the molecular scale we use charge modulation spectroscopy combined with theory. This technique allows us to further differentiate field-induced and doping-induced charges. Furthermore, we study the mesoscale organization of polymers using new techniques in the transmission electron microscope. These techniques are used on homopolymers and donor-acceptor copolymers and allow to extract information about the microstructure that is typically not visible by inspection.

Such multiscale studies of microstructure are instrumental in guiding our understanding of charge transport in conjugated polymers. Resume : The fundamental structure of all organic electronic devices is a stack of thin layers sandwiched between electrodes with precise intra-layer morphology and inter-layer interactions.

The simplest stack includes an active layer composed of the organic semiconductor sandwiched between two charge selective layers. These layers, often termed interlayer, are generally extremely thin and are used to enhance charge injection, blocking or transport. Solution processing the multilayer stack with little to no intermixing is, however, technically challenging and often incompatible with continuous roll-to-roll, high speed manufacturing.

Recently, several groups, including ours, reported on self-forming interlayers generated by the spontaneous organization of additive molecules at the top or bottom of the active layer. The additives are initially blended with the organic semiconductor in solution but segregate to an interface either during or after film processing.

The application of the multilayer stack is demonstrated in an inverted organic solar cells, but is general and applicable for all organic electronic devices. The one-step three-layer processing is achieved by harnessing two different segregation mechanisms that drive migration of two additives in opposite directions to form interlayers above and below the active layer.

Generation of the trilayer, confirmed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS , leads to improved carrier collection and corroborating the usefulness of this processing methodology for simple and cheap fabrication of organic electronic devices. Resume : The performance of the organic-based electronic devices critically depends not only to the intrinsic molecular properties of the conjugated backbones but also to the supramolecular arrangement.

In this context, Raman spectroscopy can help to clarify how organic molecular solids respond to external stimuli i. We hope that this study can not only advance useful structure-property relationships but also guide the design of new pi-conjugated materials. Resume : In recent years, theoretical description of doping processes in organic materials has evolved from relying on models inherited from doped inorganic materials to using comprehensive models based on ab initio methods.

However, existing approaches lack the essential feature to explicitly link the chemical structure along with related properties of the constituting molecules to charge dynamics in doped materials. Theory Comput. We have extracted conductivity, density of states, thermal activation energy and the fraction of mobile charge carriers and assessed good agreement with existing experimental data.

Our studies deliver microscopic insight on the doping process in organic semiconductors and we hereby illustrate how the used method can be applied for virtual molecular design of host-dopant combinations to increase performance e. Resume : Charge transport in organic semiconductors such as conjugated polymers proceeds through a combination of intrachain and interchain charge transfer events.

The large conformational phase space of conjugated polymers leads to disorder in the energies of charge sites and results in dispersive and temperature-dependent charge carrier dynamics. The distribution of site energies and resulting charge transport characteristics could, in principle, be inferred from the chemical structure of the material, although this is seldom straightforward.

In the limit of very stiff polymers with low conformational freedom, transport will become limited by the nature of the interchain contact points. In this work we focus on two conjugated polymers featuring different degrees of conformational freedom. In the case of poly 9,9-dioctyl fluorene PFO we show that hole transport can be limited by formation of a specific conformational defect, the beta-phase conformer, and that the impact of the defect on the density of states, hole transport dynamics and temperature dependent transport can be explained quantitatively in terms of the impact of the defect on the polymer?

To explore the case of intra-chain transfer-limited hole transport we study the stiff indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole polymer CIDTBT. We observe a weak degree of charge trapping, consistent with the stiff conformation indicated by persistence length measurements and molecular dynamics MD simulations and the corresponding electronic structure. In films of this polymer, hole mobility is limited relative to transport in isolated polymer, showing that interchain charge transfer in films is the rate limiting step.

This is confirmed by kinetic Monte Carlo modelling of hole transport within chain assemblies modelled using MD simulations. We conclude by reviewing the factors that will ultimately limit charge transport in conjugated polymers. Shi et al. Resume : Doping of organic semiconductors is typically achieved by adding heterogeneous dopant molecules to the polymer bulk, often resulting in poor stability due to dopant sublimation or aggregation.

In small-molecule donor-acceptor systems, charge transfer can yield high and stable electrical conductivities, an approach not yet explored in all-conjugated polymers. We report here on combining low-ionization energy polymers with high-electron affinity counterparts, yielding interfaces with resistivity values 5? The vacuum level shift and spin signals observed in UPS and EPR measurements, respectively, are attributed to the formation of polarons via spontaneous electron transfer at the interfaces.

UV-Vis absorption, combined with quantum-chemical calculations, further revealed that both negative and positive polarons are present in the bilayer. We further transferred this concept to 3D all-polymer bulk heterojunctions, obtaining as high conductivity as and superior thermal stability to the equivalent single polymer films doped with molecular dopants. As no mobile dopants are used to dope the system, our findings hold promise for electro-active composites of potential use in, for example, thermoelectrics and wearable electronics.

The incorporated Alq3 molecules adsorb onto the grain boundaries of ZnO crystallites and act as scattering centers, thus decreasing the film transparency slightly less than pristine ZnO film The band-edge emission nm of ZnO upon incorporation of Alq3 in the hybrid films show a four-fold enhancement due to the transfer of excited state energy of Alq3 molecule to ZnO.

These studies will be discussed in detail. The electron-only devices were made using the hybrid thin films and the device electrical properties with higher electron current in the device will be discussed and presented in the manuscript. Resume : Type-II heterostructures are an effective way to separate electron hole pairs, which are desirable for photoelectrochemical and photochemical water splitting.

The design of efficient coherent Type-II heterostructure depends on the band gap, band edge positions of exposed facets, translational symmetry at interface, atomic configurations and lattice strain between miller indices of exposed facets. Beyond a critical value, lower band gap is desirable to capture maximum solar radiation, appropriate band edge positions are necessary to perform redox reactions and coherent interface is desirable to avoid defects and trap states. Semiconductor materials can exist in various crystal structurers from bulk to nanoscale level depending upon synthesis methods and can be classified as?

Native structure is thermodynamically stable bulk structure whereas non-native structures have different discrete translation symmetry from their counter native structure. These structures will also have different physical and chemical properties due to their different chemical coordination. We use density functional simulations to calibrate the band gap as well as band edge positions of native and non-native structures of widely used semiconductors such as: TiO2, ZnO, BiVO4, CdSe and ZnS.

Band edge calculations show that most of the polymorphs are not only suitable for oxygen evolution reaction but also for hydrogen evolution reaction. On the basis of band edge positions, several isomaterial and heteromaterial type-II combinations of heterostructures have been explored in which out of materials have type-II combinations. However, when of coherency and lattice strain of interface is enforced, screening to account for complement translation symmetry, motif positions and lattice mismatch significantly restricted the combinations to We also discuss qualitatively the decrease in the driving force for electron-hole separation in incoherent interfaces.

The study demonstrates importance of coherency at the interface and brings of the ramifications of the lack of coherency in terms of efficiency of electron-hole separation. In this work, we picked up two commercialized polymers as the precursor to produce SiOC anode materials: 1. Dow Corning SylgardTM silicone elastomer and 2.

Both of these polymers undergo same simple pyrolysis process at in argon atmosphere for three hours. For materials characterization, the chemical bonding in the commercialized polymers precursors were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the derived SiOC materials were characterized by both X- ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope. Specific surface area was also tested by BET measurement, and the carbon content for both of the derived SiOC materials were obtained from thermogravimetric analyzer.

The excellent capacity performance is attributed to the free carbon phase which contains sp3 disordered carbon bonding leading to a great amount of nanovoids where lithium atoms storage can take place; while the Si-O-C glass phase attribute in the structure stability thus enhance the cycle retention.

Resume : Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes SWCNTs are a class of 1D material consisting of very high aspect ratio cylinders of sp2 hybridized carbon and possess exceptional electronic and physical properties. Since their discovery, SWCNTs have been incorporated into a variety of electrical applications, including photovoltaics. Nature , ? Nature Mater 8, ?

Small Methods 3, 4 Habisreutinger, S. ACS Energy Lett. Resume : Among the various technologies that convert incident solar radiation into electricity, the Dye-sensitized solar cells DSSCs stand out. However, this device has low power-conversion-efficiency, which is a barrier to their use in the photovoltaic market.

The metal-organic frameworks MOFs have receive considerable attention in photovoltaic applications due to their properties as: tunable porosity and long-distance internal energy migration pathways. MOFs are hybrid materials constructed by the combination of organic binders and inorganic nodes. Currently, ZnO has been used as an alternative material for the manufacture of photoanode, it exhibits electron mobility and electron diffusion coefficient.

Considering these facts, the expected advantages of the combination ZnO and Zr-MOF have encouraged us to exploit them in the development of a photoanode for possible application in DSSC devices. The characterizations technics confirmed the composite material formation. The BET analysis shows a significant increase in the surface area and of the pore volume in the composite material in comparision of the pure ZnO.

Resume : Charge transport in inverted polymer solar cell incorporating Ta2O5 cathode buffer layer CBL is investigated in this work. Scanning electron microscopy images of the films show small island-like features. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the films to be polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. It is observed from optical measurements such as UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence that the Ta2O5 films show absorbance around nm and the emission to be blue-shifted.

The results indicating improvement in charge transport behavior in the device due to Ta2O5 deposited at higher substrate temperature will be discussed in detail. Resume : Manifested by high absorption coefficient, large carrier diffusion length, ambipolar charge transport and moderate mobility of charge carriers, organo-lead halide perovskites recently emerging as a promising candidate for high efficiency and low-cost solution-processed solar cells, needs no introduction.

Perovskite Solar Cells PSCs have already gathered considerable attention, showing a tremendous hike in efficiency from 3. A lot of research has been done on the efficiency improvement of PSCs by optimization of the film morphology at the interfaces by various characterization techniques including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS in a solid-state active device geometry.

Li et. Here, we have studied the kinetics of charge transfer and diffusion at the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite-liquid electrolyte interface under the effect of applied bias. By applying the different dc bias from 0 to 1V and 0 to -1V, it was found that the ion diffusion at the low-frequency regime gets modulated due to charge accumulation.

The charge transport resistance is initially increased to a maximum at around 0. A transition state is observed at around 0. However, at higher applied bias voltage charge transport resistance increases again and capacitance starts to decrease due to excess ion accumulation. The perovskite films show a similar trend of change in impedance under both positive and negative bias. The Mott-Schottky Plot for forward and reverse voltage scan shows n-type and p-type behavior which indicates the ambipolar nature of perovskite semiconductor.

The significant difference in the impedance spectra can be seen in dark and light which is attributed to the high absorption coefficient of the perovskite material. We have proposed a model to explain the charging kinetics across the perovskite-liquid electrolyte interface. Science , , ? ACS Appl. The main goal of the work is to study the changes in structural and optical properties to be used for energy conversion devices with annealing temperature of oC.

XRD results confirm the crystalline phases of treated SnOx and NiOx thin films at oC, whereas, TiOx and MoOx layers show amorphous phase and confirm the requirement of high annealing temperature for crystallinity. As expected, metal to oxygen ratios vary significantly as confirmed by EDS and XPS study with a deficiency of oxygen atoms in the films, which confirms the semiconducting behavior of such metal oxide films.

The FESEM images illustrate that the surface morphology and the average grain size of the films are strongly dependent on the process parameters of the evaporated films. For the studied annealed films, refractive index values vary between 2 and 3. Later, a numerical approach has been considered to investigate the role of optical parameters as experimentally measured by integrating such layers in an optimized energy conversion device structure.

Resume : For the high efficient water splitting system, it is necessary to lower the overpotential value in the oxygen evolution reaction OER by electrocatalysts. To replace the currently widely used expensive noble metal catalysts RuO2, Pt , many researchers have reported metal nitrides NixFeyN, NixN, and CoxN due to their superior electrocatalytic properties. Furthermore, as stability issues arise in energy fields, encapsulation nitrogen doped carbon shell have been studied by many researchers.

Despite the efforts of many researchers, improving electrochemical properties with control of stable morphology and structures is one of the challenging issues. The Co3N nanocubes with diameters of nm, which has been reported outstanding electrochemical performance by Dr. Kang, were coated with nm of N-doped carbon shell. Also, specific surface area is analyzed by BET.

Resume : energy conversion materials, Bi-functional electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction OER and oxygen reduction reaction ORR on the air cathodes are the heart of the key in metal-air batteries and reversible fuel cells. Rechargeable metal-air batteries are renewable and eco-friendly sustainable energies that has the potential to replace fossil fuels in the future. However, the high cost and scarcity of these noble metals seriously hinders the mass process and application.

Consequently, Recent research results have focused on the development of catalysts using transition metals and carbon materials based that have abundant reserves rather than noble metals. Herein, we successfully synthesized CoFe 3D N-doped graphene hybrid composite for bi-functional electrocatalyst material through two-step process with hydrothermal method and annealing.

The crystallinity of sample was confirmed by XRD. Furthermore, we analyzed electrochemical properties of synthesized sample. Resume : An important approach to a sustainable energy future is via the energy conversions based on? However, most of the reported electrocatalysts were aiming at only HER or OER half reaction under a particular electrolyte condition i.

Whereas in practical applications, it is highly desirable to develop a high-performance catalyst that is universally compatible pH-universal, and bi-functional for both cathode and anode , so as to enable all kinds of electrolytes to be directly used for hydrogen and oxygen production, and to optimize the reliability during operation. It is a challenging but pressing task to design and synthesize novel, efficient, and robust pH-universal bi-functional i. The optimized electrolyzer also exhibits superior durability with small potential change over 50 h of operation, showing a class of efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for overall water splitting.

Resume : The hole transporting material HTM is a key component in part ruling both performance and stability of perovskite solar cells PSCs. In addition to its tedious and relatively expensive fabrication, this HTM shows some stability issues. In this work, new materials have thus been investigated as substitutes, including carbazole-based polymer materials, ionic liquid molecules along with polymer electrolytes.

Lithium-free molecules or macromolecules. References: 1 Geffroy, C. Solar Energy , Resume : Recent advances in the use of organic? Furthermore, the perovskite structure has the ability to host extrinsic elements, making it a promising candidate for battery field. Previous studies have shown that organic? However, the multivalent rechargeable batteries with perovskite material have not yet been realized.

In this work, these electrodes were successfully synthesis on carbon cloth through a feasible solution process. It still delivered 81 mAh g? We anticipate that these results open a new direction for the use of organic? Resume : Perovskite solar cells based on methylammonium lead iodide CH3NH3PbI3 and related materials have emerged as an exciting development for next generation photovoltaic technologies. Solar cells based on them have achieved impressive energy conversion efficiencies, but their stability is still limited.

Understanding degradation mechanisms in such materials is key to developing strategies to increase their lifetime. The present work reports on the nanoscale characterization of perovskite photovoltaic films with respect to their stability and degradation mechanisms. We investigated the local conductance and surface potential variation of perovskite films at the nanoscale using conducting atomic force microscopy CAFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy KPFM.

CAFM measurements revealed that the current is larger at grain boundaries. The surface potential at grain boundaries and on top of the grain is almost similar which suggests a negligible energy barrier at grain boundaries. We investigated the effect of sunlight exposure on the nano-scale conductance and surface potential of perovskite thin films towards better understanding of photo-induced degradation mechanisms.

Resume : Chitin nanofiber ChNF is one of a promising eco-friendly material because it is non-toxic, biocompatible, robust, and sustainable. It is also the most abundant marine polysaccharide. This work, we demonstrate a? This is primarily because of the electrostatic interaction between the? Keywords: poly vinylidene fluoride ; chitin; ferroelectric polymer; piezoelectric nanogenerator. Resume : The Li? S based battery is a promising alternative to the present Li-ion battery for energy storage; however, the unwanted long polysulfide species affect the durability and performance of the battery due to dissolution in liquid electrolytes.

Organosulfur silanes grafted on Al current collector have been successfully demonstrated to function as a sulfur source as a cathode. A molecular-level understanding of the chemical processes and properties such as stability of intermediates, the reactivity of intermediates, and reactivity toward the organic electrolytes in the Mg?

S batteries is therefore of great interest. In the present study, we exploit quantum chemical methods for in-silico characterization of Mg? Also, the computed reduction potentials in these cases are derived and compared with experimentally observed cyclic voltammetry curves.

Finally, we investigate the effect of organic electrolyte on the reduction potentials. Resume : Research in electrochemical energy storage is converging to target systems with battery-level energy density, and capacitor-level cycling stability and power density.

One approach is to utilize redox-active electrolytes that add faradaic charge storage to increase energy density of supercapacitors. However, aqueous redox-enhanced electrochemical capacitors redox ECs have performed relatively poorly, primarily due to the cross-diffusion of soluble redox couples, reduced cycle life, and low operating voltages. This approach is demonstrated by the use of bromide catholyte and modified hydrophobic cations e.

This mechanism solves the cross-diffusion issue of redox ECs without using costly ion-selective membranes, and has the added benefit of stabilizing the reactive bromine generated during charging. Using the concepts learned from this 1st generation configuration, we created a hybrid electrochemical storage system by designing and implementing stackable bipolar pouch cells with corrosion-resistant, non-metallic current collectors.

The device using ZnBr2 battery chemistry and tetrabutylammonium cations enables high-power aqueous electrochemical energy storage. To obtain a layer with a desired conductivity in structure, it is firstly need to determine a dependence of the measured property conductivity versus the technological parameter precursor flux at other given parameters growth conditions for this layer. Based on the rocking curves obtained by X-ray diffractometry , the lattice constant of the investigated epitaxial layers was determined.

In the case of Si doping the intensity and the peaks width remain approximately the same. In the case of Zn doping there is a tendency for a intensity reduce and peaks broadening with doping concentration rise. By noncontact conductivity measurement method, the specific resistivity of the investigated layers was determined. The dopant Si and Zn concentration profiles were determined based on the distribution profiles in the structure layers. As expected, the conductivity dependence for the samples doped with Si shows a linear increase with increasing the doping component concentration disilane - Si2H6 in the gas phase.

Resume : The lithium-sulfur batteries are the best candidate for the further improvement among the powering sources due to its high theoretical capacity and affordance in the market. However, the shuttle effect produced during the cycling processes is the limitation of these batteries. As one of the solutions to inhibit shuttle effect, this study developed the ultrathin polyelectrolyte-clay nanocoating on the polypropylene PP separator though the layer-by-layer technique.

The differences in morphology of MMT and Hal nanotubes and the pH-controlled charge density of polyelectrolytes PEI and PAA tremendously influenced the thickness and performance of the layer-by-layer assemblies. Especially, The coatings at different pH resulted in the increase in electrolyte uptake, suppressed lithium dendrite growth and e enhanced discharge capacity of the cell. Moreover, the ultrathin polyelectrolyte-clay coatings notably improve thermal and dimensional stability of the PP separator.

The results of the experiment validate that ultrathin LbL clay-containing coatings on the PP separator membrane can drastically improve the cyclability of the Li-S cells and suppress the shuttle effect. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the State target program BR from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan and by the Faculty-development competitive research grant DF from Nazarbayev University.

Resume : The sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction OER is a fundamental impediment to the production of green hydrogen. Molecular catalysts for this reaction show some of the most impressive activity. This leads to the confirmation of a method-independent scaling relationship, a description of routes toward circumventing this relationship and a justification for the ascendency of Ru catalysts in this domain.

In previous work, which will be described, we explain why the state-of-the-art catalysts are so active and how molecular catalysts can exhibit near-zero overpotential. The binding energy data of the OH intermediate is used to train a machine learning model, and we describe how this can be applied to advance future catalyst screening studies. The OER could be boosted by immobilizing a molecular catalyst on a support, leading to the realization of a hybrid catalyst.

We describe recent research into immobilization strategies which include covalently tethering the catalyst and the direct grafting of molecular complexes onto a solid material. This is expected to advance the state-of-the-art in hybrid OER catalysis. Resume : For creation of photo- and electroluminescent, charge-transporting and light-absorbing materials, both organic?

Forming OM and QDs hybrid composites is of promising trend in the development of materials for optoelectronics and photovoltaic devices. In the report, hybrid composites comprising new organic semiconductors based on? The correlation between the structure of the materials and optical and electrical properties of the films including the influence of QDs on the charge mobility is discussed.

Resume : CoFeCu ternary layered hydroxides have been successfully fabricated by facile synthesis method-electrodeposition which is efficient and cost-effective. For OER, it only required a quite small overpotential of mV to reach the current density of 10 mA. Furthermore, it has also demonstrated good durability in alkaline media, indicating its great potential for practical application in industry.

Resume : Doping of organic semiconductors can be considered a key factor for improved device performance of organic electronics. However, doping is difficult to control, in particular in solution processed organic devices. The main challenges are avoiding dissolving previous layers in the device stack when depositing multilayer structures and avoiding diffusion of dopant molecules to adjacent layers.

There are several approaches for achieving well-controlled multilayer structures from solution; a common strategy is using orthogonal solvents for the different layers, unfortunately, this approach is restricted to only a few material systems due to limited solubility. In this research work we use a new small molecule additive for azide-based crosslinking of organic semiconductors in order to produce insoluble layers and enable deposition of subsequent layers using the same solvent without intermixing of the layers.

Each layer is measured individually before and after doping and crosslinking in order to clarify the effect of the different additives. Finally, complete multilayer devices are characterized for determining how deposition of subsequent layers affect the doping density and doping profile in the device stack. Resume : Understanding fundamental processes in organic photovoltaics OPVs requires numerical models that reflect the specific features of organic materials, such as hopping transport in a disorder-broadened density of states.

One natural approach for this purpose are kinetic Monte Carlo kMC simulations. However, using kMC, it has proven to be challenging to simulate the key characteristic of any photovoltaic device, its current-voltage J-V curve under illumination.

The main challenges arise from the presence of injecting contacts and the importance of charge recombination close to the open-circuit voltage. In this presentation, we demonstrate a kMC model that fully describes the J-V curve of a disordered organic solar cell [1].

We show that it crucial to make realistic assumptions on the injection barriers, the blend morphology, and the kinetics of interfacial charge-transfer states. All these properties were calibrated by independent experimental techniques such as charge extraction, electron microscopy, and transient absorption measurements. Our calibrated model provides clear evidence that the conclusions drawn from microscopic and transient KMC modeling are indeed relevant for real operating OPV devices.

Resume : The most efficient perovskite solar cells PSCs employ an n? Moreover, Lithium bis trifluoromethane sulfonimide LiTFSI is hygroscopic and accelerates the rapid deterioration of perovskite structure, leading to the lack of long-term stability of PSCs. Based on the molecules dipole moment, the m-ZnO NPs energy alignment has been tuning to ohmic contact, which assist charges tunneling to the electrode.

The controllable surface dipole can achieve better charges equilibrium further enhance the Fill Factor and Current density.

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Em outubro do mesmo ano, Luciano Huck deixa a emissora e assina com a Rede Globo. Condenava duramente a concorrente por comprar mais jogos do que o que transmite. No mesmo dia, o Dia Dia passa a ser apresentado por Olga Bongiovanni. Em 28 de setembro de , depois de permanecer por 15 anos apresentando o programa Flash , Amaury Jr. Em abril, estreou o programa musical Terra Nativa comandado pela dupla Guilherme e Santiago. Em um novo acordo com a Rede Globo, a emissora volta a transmitir no ano seguinte, o Campeonato Carioca.

Este programa foi extinto depois. Neste ano, estrearam no canal a jornalista Lorena Calabria , como uma das apresentadoras da reestreia do matinal Dia Dia , e a apresentadora Adriane Galisteu , no programa Toda Sexta. Logo no primeiro dia do ano de , a Band sofreu o desfalque de mais uma afiliada. No dia seguinte, a emissora estreia o programa O Mundo Segundo os Brasileiros. Em 9 de janeiro , estreou a nova temporada de The Walking Dead. Em 10 de fevereiro , o cinegrafista teve morte cerebral.

Em 19 de abril , a emissora perde um de seus maiores profissionais. O matinal substituiu o telejornal Primeiro Jornal , que estava no ar na emissora desde Em 11 de julho , em plena cobertura da Copa, morre o jornalista Osmar de Oliveira , mais conhecido como Dr. Ele narrava jogos e participava do Jogo Aberto nacional. Ele morreu aos 77 anos, por conta de um infarto.

Em 7 de novembro , estreou a novela turca Ezel. Em dezembro , a Band, junto com o BandSports , transmitiu as semifinais e finais da Liga Nacional de Handebol , tanto no masculino como no feminino. Em 18 de dezembro , estreou na emissora a novela turca Amor Proibido. Por isso, Netinho de Paula deixa de comandar o Brasil da Gente , que saiu do ar na emissora.

Em 17 de outubro , estreou uma nova novela turca: Minha Vida. Em 11 de janeiro , a Band decide encerrar o novo Show do Esporte e retornar com o Terceiro Tempo , tradicional debate esportivo dominical de Milton Neves. A reestreia ocorreu no dia Em 7 de fevereiro , estreou a segunda temporada do Shark Tank Brasil. Em 11 de fevereiro , a emissora perde um dos seus principais nomes do jornalismo. No dia 24, estreou a nova temporada do MasterChef , agora apresentado em novo dia, aos domingos, as O folhetim teve cenas gravadas no Brasil e foi ganhadora do Emmy Internacional de melhor novela em No dia 19, estreou o Band.

Doc , programa com as grandes reportagens da emissora. Um dos principais motivos foi a falta de repasse financeiro pelo uso do sinal. No dia 30, estreou o reality Me Poupe! Nathalia Batista, colunista de moda, passou a fazer o programa ao lado de Luis Ernesto Lacombe.

No dia 25, a emissora decide reformular o matinal Aqui na Band , afastando a equipe, incluindo os apresentadores Luis Ernesto Lacombe e Nathalia Batista e o diretor do programa Vildomar Batista , passando a exibir reprises. No dia 13, estreia Bar Aberto, o primeiro reality show de coquetelaria , apresentado por Marina Person.

No dia 14 de novembro, estreia Dr. Maio de Consultado em 11 de dezembro de Folha de S. Tudo sobre TV. Jornal do Brasil. Museu da TV. Consultado em 21 de dezembro de O Estado de S. Terra Networks. Todo Dia. Coca-Cola queria que equipes entrassem juntas no gramado pisando num tapete vermelho com o logo do refrigerante.

Fala Nabi:. Os grandes clubes precisam jogar contra times menores num campeonato para darem uma respirada. Oito clubes do Grupo A jogaram contra os 8 clubes do grupo B. Setembro a dezembro os estaduais. Um sucesso estrondoso de vendas.

Requerimento tem assinatura de deputados e 29 senadores. Coca-Cola e C13 se acertam. E no primeiro semestre. E com o cruzamento indesejado pelo C Mas costurado por Eurico Miranda sem mandato do Clube dos 13 para viabilizar o torneio. Pepsi-Cola passa a fornecer produtos na Ilha do Retiro.

BR continuaria no segundo semestre. No returno, as equipes jogavam entre si no mesmo grupo. O Galo levou o Mengo adiante. Inter x Cruzeiro empataram sem gols no primeiro jogo da semifinal. Prometem troco. Os clubes definiam tudo…. Ao menos por isso. Ele encerrou a disputa. A partida durou 3h50! Flamengo 1 x 0 Internacional.

Carlos Miguel Aidar, em entrevista a "Folha de S. Paulo", deu o mote do C13 e do pensamento dos pares:. Um time espetacular em nomes, e que engrenou na reta de chegada do BR Palavras de Carlos Miguel Aidar. Se fossem Vasco e Corinthians, seria o mesmo. Melhor seria decidir tudo no campo de jogo.

Quaisquer outros presidentes, sim. Aidar ainda defende 20 clubes no BR Carlos Miguel Aidar acabou sendo reeleito presidente do C13, com reforma nos estatutos. TV Globo admite lucro com evento. Entidade defende triangular entre Inter, Sport e Cruzeiro para definir os dois clubes na Libertadores.

O Flamengo declina participar do torneio continental. Ganho mais dinheiro com o Flamengo fazendo amistosos. Para a tropa da elite, era prova de que era um torneio menor…. O Guarani de Carbone ficou treinando escanteios. O Inter, nem isso. Ilha do Retiro. SBT transmitiu. Clube dos 13 acena com Ele pondera que estaduais seriam desvalorizados e contratos com atletas teriam de ser estendidos.

E de Teixeira…. E a Copa do Mundo no Brasil. Em …. Beto Zini, presidente do Guarani, seria seu vice. O grupo estava rachado na CBF! Nabi deixa por enquanto a entidade. Por enquanto…. Caso transitado em julgado a favor do Sport. E, por tabela, para a CBF. E das tramas de todos os lados. Inclusive dele. A mais bandida no enredo sem mocinhos. Mas criou um campeonato iniciado sem regulamento. Segue na luta. Parte do enrosco, e a campanha rubro-negra.

Ao vivo. Ver mais jogos. Blog do Mauro Beting. Ora, Bolinhas! As mais lidas agora. Inter falha feio. Trabalhou nos jornais Folha da Tarde, Agora S. Paulo e Lance! Perdeu, mas jogando.

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Em 24 de agosto , Clodovil Hernandes estreia na emissora o programa Clodovil Soft. Em outubro do mesmo ano, Luciano Huck deixa a emissora e assina com a Rede Globo. Condenava duramente a concorrente por comprar mais jogos do que o que transmite.

No mesmo dia, o Dia Dia passa a ser apresentado por Olga Bongiovanni. Em 28 de setembro de , depois de permanecer por 15 anos apresentando o programa Flash , Amaury Jr. Em abril, estreou o programa musical Terra Nativa comandado pela dupla Guilherme e Santiago. Em um novo acordo com a Rede Globo, a emissora volta a transmitir no ano seguinte, o Campeonato Carioca. Este programa foi extinto depois.

Neste ano, estrearam no canal a jornalista Lorena Calabria , como uma das apresentadoras da reestreia do matinal Dia Dia , e a apresentadora Adriane Galisteu , no programa Toda Sexta. Logo no primeiro dia do ano de , a Band sofreu o desfalque de mais uma afiliada. No dia seguinte, a emissora estreia o programa O Mundo Segundo os Brasileiros. Em 9 de janeiro , estreou a nova temporada de The Walking Dead.

Em 10 de fevereiro , o cinegrafista teve morte cerebral. Em 19 de abril , a emissora perde um de seus maiores profissionais. O matinal substituiu o telejornal Primeiro Jornal , que estava no ar na emissora desde Em 11 de julho , em plena cobertura da Copa, morre o jornalista Osmar de Oliveira , mais conhecido como Dr.

Ele narrava jogos e participava do Jogo Aberto nacional. Ele morreu aos 77 anos, por conta de um infarto. Em 7 de novembro , estreou a novela turca Ezel. Em dezembro , a Band, junto com o BandSports , transmitiu as semifinais e finais da Liga Nacional de Handebol , tanto no masculino como no feminino. Em 18 de dezembro , estreou na emissora a novela turca Amor Proibido.

Por isso, Netinho de Paula deixa de comandar o Brasil da Gente , que saiu do ar na emissora. Em 17 de outubro , estreou uma nova novela turca: Minha Vida. Em 11 de janeiro , a Band decide encerrar o novo Show do Esporte e retornar com o Terceiro Tempo , tradicional debate esportivo dominical de Milton Neves.

A reestreia ocorreu no dia Em 7 de fevereiro , estreou a segunda temporada do Shark Tank Brasil. Em 11 de fevereiro , a emissora perde um dos seus principais nomes do jornalismo. No dia 24, estreou a nova temporada do MasterChef , agora apresentado em novo dia, aos domingos, as O folhetim teve cenas gravadas no Brasil e foi ganhadora do Emmy Internacional de melhor novela em No dia 19, estreou o Band. Doc , programa com as grandes reportagens da emissora.

Um dos principais motivos foi a falta de repasse financeiro pelo uso do sinal. No dia 30, estreou o reality Me Poupe! Nathalia Batista, colunista de moda, passou a fazer o programa ao lado de Luis Ernesto Lacombe. No dia 25, a emissora decide reformular o matinal Aqui na Band , afastando a equipe, incluindo os apresentadores Luis Ernesto Lacombe e Nathalia Batista e o diretor do programa Vildomar Batista , passando a exibir reprises.

No dia 13, estreia Bar Aberto, o primeiro reality show de coquetelaria , apresentado por Marina Person. No dia 14 de novembro, estreia Dr. Maio de Consultado em 11 de dezembro de Folha de S. Tudo sobre TV. Jornal do Brasil. Museu da TV.

Consultado em 21 de dezembro de O Estado de S. Terra Networks. Mas e os aeroportos? No primeiro semestre, na verdade, as empresas ficaram em compasso de espera. No ano passado, por causa da crise financeira mundial, os gargalos foram amenizados. Apesar dos investimentos em andamento, os dois portos vivem em constante colapso.

Resultado: tudo para. O setor de energia, depois do racionamento de , parece estar entrando nos eixos. De qualquer forma, o governo tem conseguido afastar o risco de racionamento. Os desligamentos provocaram a piora na qualidade da energia entregue aos brasileiros.

O problema, que antes era dinheiro, passou a ser a falta de projetos. Ignorar esse fator pode ser desastroso para a economia. Na semana que vem, uma nova etapa da obra deve ser inaugurada.

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Resume : The charge-transfer CT states that form at the interface between the electron-donor D and electron-acceptor A materials have a crucial role in exciton-dissociation, charge- separation and charge-recombination processes in organic electronic devices. Here, we will assess the current understanding of CT states and describe how factors such as the geometry of the D-A interface, electronic polarization, disorder and the extent of electron delocalization influence the radiative and non-radiative decay processes.

We will first outline the theoretical and experimental approaches that are used to characterize these states. New features of the CT states, which emerge from the recent development of organic solar cells based on non-fullerene acceptors and development of organic light emitting diodes based on neutral-radical emitters will be then discussed.

The charge transport in the active layer is generally understood to occur by a hopping mechanism for which many models have been proposed. From an application perspective, the extended Gaussian disorder model eGDM [1], which assumes nearest neighbor hopping nnH in a Gaussian density of states, has by far been most successful, and typically works well for p-type materials.

We find it gives an inconsistent description for typical electron-only devices, significantly underestimating disorder. Here we propose a more physical analytical variable range hopping VRH model which allows a consistent extraction of the hopping parameters from quasi steady state experiments, in particular T-dependent SCLC.

The model has been calibrated by direct comparison to kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. While for some materials a nnH model can still be applied, the major advantage of our model is that it provides a consistent description of all investigated material systems and can predict if nnH could be used alternatively.

We inferred that the main difference between p- and n-type transport lies in the significantly larger localization radius of the latter, while all other parameters disorder, attempt rates etc. Typical Gaussian disorder values in the range 45? Reference 1 Pasveer, W. Photo-generated carriers lose energy during extraction from polymer-fullerene solar cells.

Resume : Metal halide perovskites are remarkable thin film semiconductors with numerous favorable properties that are optimal for photovoltaic and light emission applications[1]. These characteristics include high absorption coefficients, long charge carrier lifetimes and a tunable bandgap.

We have previously shown that the luminescence efficiency and charge carrier recombination behavior in mixed halide perovskites is significantly altered by the cation alloy employed during fabrication via facile solution processing[2]. The addition of alkali metal cations provides passivation of sub-bandgap defect states and also stabilizes an energetic landscape that facilitates photodoped carrier accumulation, leading to enhanced optoelectronic performance.

Our current work aims to further unveil the influence of microscopic compositional variations on local photoinduced carrier accumulation in CsMAFA PbIxBr3-x perovskite films. We combine Femtosecond Transient Absorption Microscopy with nanoscale X-ray Fluorescence and Atomic Force Microscopy to track carrier diffusion and recombination across a heterogenous chemical and morphological landscape. We find that the complex interplay of local carrier recombination and diffusion will have important ramifications for solar cell and LED device performance.

Nature Nanotech 10, [2] Feldmann, S. Nat Photonics doi For this purpose, TiO2 nanoparticles were doped with iron ions Fe and the doped photocatalyst nanoparticles were introduced into Pani by using an in situ polymerization technique. Pani composites, including 10, 20 and 30 wt. Vis spectroscopies were utilized to characterize the photocatalyst and the composites.

UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed that the band gap of TiO2 widened to 3. Doping the photocatalyst with iron ions might improve the photocatalytic activity through hindering the recombination of the photoinduced charge carriers on TiO2 nanoparticles. In addition, the discoloration rate of the model dye, methylene blue, for the composite sample was 0. Keywords: Electrochemical supercapacitor; Electrochemical deposition; Polyaniline; Nanofibers; Nanoplatelets; Nanocomposites?

E-mail addresses: vijaykumar. Resume : Metal? Herein we report several facile methods to rational design of novel nanoarrays on flexible carbon cloth substrate. One example is hollow NiCo2O4 nanoarrays obtained from a two-dimensional 2D cobalt-based MOF, which is synthesized via a solution reaction with an additional annealing treatment. The as-obtained NiCo2O4 nanostructure arrays can provide rich reaction sites and short ion diffusion path.

When evaluated as a flexible electrode material for supercapacitor, the as-fabricated NiCo2O4 nanowall electrode shows remarkable electrochemical performance with excellent rate capability and long cycle life. In addition, the hollow NiCo2O4 nanowall electrode exhibits promising electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction OER. The hierarchical structure is facilely derived from a metal-organic framework MOF precursor.

A carbon onion coating constrains the Kirkendall effect to promote the conversion of the Co nanoparticles into irregular hollow oxide nanospheres with a fine scale nanograin structure, which enables promising catalytic properties toward both OER and ORR. Our work provides good examples of rational design of hollow nanostructured arrays with high electrochemical performance and mechanical flexibility, holding great potential for future flexible multi-functional electronic devices.

Electron transport is also reinforced by nitrogen species due to the formation of hybridizing N 2p orbitals that give the acceptor levels in the bandgap. Resume : We have proposed new catalyst that satisfies not only catalytic activity and price but also stability of the catalyst that can be adapted in an extreme environment for the production of high purity hydrogen through water-splitting reaction.

To meet all three considerations, we prepared the catalyst through a simple pyrolysis process after the newly introduced soaking method using porous metal-organic framework MOF. The nanoparticles of tetragonal zirconia t-ZrO2 are formed from MOF having a homogeneous structure, while oxygen vacancy help form metal nanoparticles and Metal single atoms Me1 during the pyrolysis process. Resume : The problem of efficiently obtaining of hydrogen through photocatalytic water splitting is one of the most promising areas of renewable energy.

Semiconductor TiO2 with photocatalytic activity in the ultraviolet region only is one of the most common materials for this process. It is found that the doping of carbon nitride by oxygen significantly improves its photocatalytic properties. Therefore, to improve the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalyst, the coupling O-doped g-C3N4 O-g-C3N4 with anatase TiO2 is a good strategy. Constructing heterojunction structures of TiO2 and O-g-C3N4 may be used as a cost-effective way to avoid the drawbacks of each component and realize a synergic effect for boosting the photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution.

Resume : Improving devices incorporating solution-processed halide perovskite nanocrystals demands a better understanding of charge transport in this emerging new class of semiconductor nanomaterials. Here we perform a systematic study on CsPbBr3 nanocrystal-based field effect transistors to develop a model for charge transport that is applicable to versatile device architectures. Using temperature and electric-field dependent transient response characterizations we demonstrate electronic current is the dominant current passing through the NC films under dark condition.

Resume : For spatial-limited applications such as portable electronics and wearable electronics, energy storage platforms require high power densities, high level of efficiency, lightness and flexibility. In terms of manufacturing and safety for flexible energy storages, solid-state materials as both separator and electrolyte are preferred instead of use of liquid electrolytes.

Gel polymer electrolytes GPEs can act as both separator and electrolytes without the leakage of liquid electrolytes. Here, good interface formation between electrodes and GPE is significant for high-performance energy storages. The GPEs with highly ion conductivity is impregnated into carbon nanomaterials-based electrodes which can enhance electrolyte-accessible surface area of electrodes. The GPEs with large mechanical stability can be used as both separator and electrolyte, providing flexible solid-state energy storage devices.

This strategy holds significant promise as a platform to design high-performance carbon nanomaterial-based electrodes for energy storages. Resume : To respond with the increasing need for high power and energy, required for the promising next-generation applications ranging from portable electronics and transportations, there are the rapid advances in the field of microporous carbon materials as high performance electrodes for energy storage. Herein, hierarchy-structured porous carbon with both considerable surface area and high electrical conductivity is set by the solution casting of intrinsically microporous precursor polymer of intrinsic microporosity, PIM-1 , that made of non-solvent induced phase separation NIPs process and subsequent carbonization, for use in supercapacitor electrodes.

The PIM-1 that has interconnection in three dimensions and ordered pore channel is important for increasing supercapacitors performance. Resume : The barrier in the development of energetic material is the material design and performance improvement based on it. Currently, creative design and preparation of novel nitrogen-rich compounds are significant for new generation of green energetic materials.

At the present work, organic heterocyclic hybrid pyrazol-triazole was constructed, synthesized and applied as building blocks in the development of versatile thermally stable high-energy materials. All derivatives were fully characterized by vibrational infraredspectroscopy IR , multinuclear NMR 1H, 13C spectroscopy, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry DSC , impact and friction-sensitivity test.

Additionally, the structures of and were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and their crystal packing characteristics were thoroughlyanalyzed. Meanwhile, we developed its salts and other derivatives as green energetic material alternatives based on this novel nitrogen-rich framework. Its ionic salts compounds also exhibit reasonable properties, such as good experimental densities 1.

According to the theoretical analysis of Hirshfeld surface and fingerprint plots, this phenomennon can be explained by their intensive N? H and N? N hydrogen-bond interactions. Worth noting that with assembly of heterocyclic anions into this new cation, these salts also exhibited impactful? Compound 14 also indicated its potential as a secondary explosive,which presented superior physical performance to those of RDX.

This design and synthetic strategies broaden our knowledge of ionic energetic materials, which can effectively elongate the scope to study structure-property relationships of next-generation green energetic materials.

Overally, this work is helpful for accelerating the discovery of insensitive, thermostable and high-energy green organic and hybrid materials in energy applications. The materials are some of the best candidate materials for solar-cell applications. It looks like it is now going towards optimization. However, we still have many unclear physical properties of OHP materials such as thermoelectric and THz absorption properties.

Studies of these are just beginning and require more experiments and theoretical calculations. In this study, we fabricated formamidinium lead iodide thin films on a flexible substrate using the SVE method and then confirmed its THz-wave absorption property. After annealing for 10 min, we confirmed a mixed state with? In the C 1s core-level spectra, we found two different chemical states originated from?

The origin of the THz-wave absorption property is assumed from a significant Pb? I vibration mode from the mixed phases in FAPbI3. Resume : Triboelectric nanogenerators are those devices that can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy using the triboelectric effect [1?

The main structure of the device includes two metal coated polymeric materials. Although solid-solid triboelectric nanogenerators are robust in design, cost effective, and efficient devices to generate electricity, there is a problem of wear and tear after specific cycles of operation [4].

Recently it is discovered that water can replace one of the material and can generate electricity using a single material. The main contribution in the enhanced output power comes from the increased in hydrophobicity, polarizability and surface roughness of ZnO-PVDF nanocomposite film. We have also studied the effect of ions present in the water to check the feasibility of these devices to be used in ocean waters.

The present work will give a novel strategy to generate electricity from rain water as well as from ocean water. References 1. Wang, Z. On the origin of contact-electrification. Today, 30, 34? Guo et al. ACS Nano, 11, ? Wang, J. Achieving ultrahigh triboelectric charge density for efficient energy harvesting. Singh, H. Nano Energy 51, ? Resume : The piezopotential generated in non-centrosymmetric crystals under external mechanical stimuli can be exploited to modulate the contact characteristics at the metal-semiconductor interface.

The extent of electric modulation by the piezopotential was found to be moderate. This is mainly because the piezopotential was designed to alter the band bend of the semiconductor layer, which changed the injection barrier by 0.

We propose an efficient method to utilize the piezopotential for modulating Schottky barrier, i. This was done by capacitively coupling the piezoelectric material with a Schottky barrier SB - tunable graphene electrode, using an ion gel electrolyte. Through capacitive coupling, the piezopotential could modulate the work function of a graphene electrode by 0.

This was visualized directly using Kelvin probe force microscopy experiments for the first time. Consequently, a piezoelectric nanogenerator PENG could change the current density of the semiconductor layer by more than three orders of magnitude with strain, and yield a high current density larger than Multistage modulation of the height of the SB at the junction was also successfully demonstrated by integrating two PENGs with ion gel.

This work presents an efficient method for harnessing the piezopotential generated from PENG to actively control the operation of flexible electronics through external mechanical stimuli. Resume : Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries LIBs are promising power sources that are currently used in many portable electronic devices and electric vehicles due to their high energy density, high operating voltage, low self-discharge, long cycle-life, and low toxicity.

One of the interesting and promising polymers for preparation of solid polymer electrolytes SPEs is poly dimethylsiloxane PDMS which has a very low Tg of oC, high flexibility of the polymer chains and large free volume. First, PDMS was acrylated with acryloyl chloride.

After, polymer blend with photoinitiator casted onto glass plate and exposed to UV-crosslinking for 3 min. Obtained films were dried under vacuum at 60? All performed procedure was conducted in the argon-filled glove box. FTIR spectroscopies were used to confirm the structure of polymer films. According to TGA results main degradation of polymer electrolytes starts from about oC.

Obtained transparent SPEs have excellent mechanical properties and good flexibility. Coin cells were assembled with blocking electrodes using prepared SPEs and exhibited electrochemical stability above 4. The ionic conductivities were determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS analysis.

The impedance measurements were carried out with frequency ranges from 10 Hz to 1 MHz from room temperature to 90 oC with a temperature interval of 5 oC. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the targeted state program BR?

Resume : With a three-electron redox-mechanism-based high capacity, Al-ion-based electrochemical battery capacitor systems are expected to provide high capacity, low cost and high safety to meet the increasing energy demands. The freestanding composite film with a hierarchical porous structure is prepared through vacuum-assisted curing of a mixed dispersion containing PEDOT:PSS on carbon cloth substrate.

Resume : Galvanic replacement GR reactions have emerged as a versatile tool in the creation of hybrid materials. Traditionally, a GR reaction involves exchange of metal cations which occur due to the favorable difference in the electrochemical potentials of the two metals involved.

The interface allows stabilization of the oxidation state of the outgoing metal ion as well as the incoming metal during the GR process. However, a GR reaction involving an exchange of two anions has not been achieved. The rich optical property of CuTCNQ, which is well-known, is further enhanced due to the formation of a hybrid and results in a significant enhancement of redox catalytic reactions under light illumination.

However, solution processed perovskite PS film contains many charge traps at the grain boundaries and on the surface, leading to increased non-radiative recombination, and instability of the PS film in air due to humidity. Surface passivation is a common solution for minimizing charge traps and protecting the surface from the moisture in air. Resume : Drastic industrialization and increasing use of fossil fuels caused tremendous climate change by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration.

So development of photocatalyst for reducing carbon dioxide to useful fuel with high efficiency and stability is great issue. In natural photosynthesis, leaf shows significant efficiency and stability by combination of three dimensional structure and Z-scheme catalytic system. Three dimensional structure of copper oxide nanowire mesh enhanced adsorption, mass transportation. And Z-schematic electron flow between bismuth vanadate and copper oxide enhanced charge separation and transport with high redox potential.

And also mediation by ultrathin carbon layer enhances charge transport between two catalysts and enhances stability by protecting copper oxide. And also shows methane production that is higher hydrocarbon. This work provides ideal artificial photosynthesis system for carbon dioxide reduction with high conversion rate and stability that can be developed as practical catalyst for sustainable fuel synthesis and solution of environmental problem. Resume : Porphyrins as a new class of hole transporter represent a promising alternative for perovskite solar cells since the initial study in In this poster, we present a series of Prophyrin-based molecules designed and optimized as hole transporting materials HTMs for perovskite solar cells.

The rational design concepts and structural effect on their photovoltaic performance are investigated. We find that the electronic communication between molecules significantly influences the carrier transporting behavior and their PV characteristics. Structural modification by using dimeric porphyrin core unit yields brand new efficient porphyrin HTM WT3 which improves device efficiency up to The red-shift and broaden absorption spectra of spin-coated solid film is a highly relevant indicator for the molecule coupling and thus corresponds well to the device performances.

Apart from the excellent power conversion efficiency, the porphyrin-based HTMs also demonstrated good stability and moisture resistance with appropriate design. They are surface-functionalized carbonaceous nanoparticles with very good optical properties, like the intense fluorescence which can be tuned in visible by changing the excitation wavelength.

These characteristics along with their non-toxicity and low fabrication costs make CQDs attractive for photocatalysis, optoelectronics, or biological applications. CQDs come into several structural types like graphene quantum dots, graphite quantum dots several graphene quantum dots in stacked structucture , or amorphous carbon quantum dots.

Despite many advances, several important issues still remain open regarding the optical response of CQDs such as their interaction with the environment or the origin of fluorescence tunability. Our calculations are consistent with the scenario by which the photoluminescence response is a combination of at least two sources: one is the core with subsequent quantization effects and the other resides in functional groups that induce levels in the bandgap.

The most promising lead-free candidate has been regarded as tin-based halide perovskite materials due to their similar or even better optical properties to lead-based counterparts such as energy bandgap and charge mobility. However, their solar cells suffer from low open-circuit voltages VOC arising from mismatched energy levels between tin-based perovskite layer and charge transporting layers CTLs in their structure.

In this presentation, we report that a new device structure for tin-based perovskite solar cell. As a result, the newly designed tin-based perovskite solar cell achieves a power conversion efficiency of 7. This work highlights the importance of redesigning device structures for Sn-based perovskite solar cells.

Resume : Layered Mo based semiconductors with mono- or few-layer thickness can potentially advance many applications, ranging from optoelectronics, photo catalysis and sensors. By first-principles DFT calculations at HSE06 level and Boltzmann transport theory, we explore the electronic, charge transport and optical properties of relevant lamellar materials: alpha-MoO3 with large band gap 2. To tune their properties, we modify their respective chemical compositions by exchanging O and S inside the two materials at various concentrations.

Substituting sulfur atoms by oxygen atoms on 2H-MoS2 does not alter significantly the electronic band gap. This theoretical work opens new perspectives for the further investigation of lamellar oxy-sulfide materials. In particular, we are currently investigating the corresponding properties of monolayer structure of the corresponding 2D materials.

Resume : Solar water evaporation has been considered as a promising technique to harvest solar energy for the practicable water purification. However, current technology for solar water purification is severely hindering by insufficient solar utilization and complicated operation. Thus, achieving efficient solar absorber that can strengthen the solar energy utilization and improve water purification efficiency remain highly desirable. Herein, we report the development of charge-transfer cocrystals CTC that afford absorption-tunable, ultra-stable organic solar absorbers to support efficient water evaporation.

By modulating the combination of both donor and acceptor units through charge-transfer effects, full-solar absorbing performance can be realized to achieve good photothermal conversion. This CTC-doped 3D scaffold is designed and fabricated, and our design results in an efficient solar- evaporation rate of 1.

Importantly, water purification of seawater, dyestuff pollution, heavy metal, and microorganism pollution are realized and achieve a high purification efficiency of The charge-transfer-mediated approach may offer a major step forward in manufacturing solar absorbers toward practical water purification.

Resume : Co-evaporation can fabricate high quality perovskite absorbers for solar cells, but this fabrication route is still largely underexplored, as most research groups focus on cheap and fast, but industrially unattractive wet-chemical processes. At MLU, we develop dynamic co-evaporation processes for mixed halide perovskites and try to find new material combination with better performance and higher stability.

In this contribution, we investigate the film formation during the growth of hybrid lead halide perovskites by co-evaporation with the aid of in situ XRD diagnostics. We are able to resolve secondary phases already during growth and our time-resolved measurements allows us to report on the kinetics of film formation and thermal degradation. Resume : Halide perovskites hold exceptional promise as cheap, low temperature solution-processed optoelectronic materials.

Yet they are hindered by poor structural and chemical stability, rapidly degrading when exposed to moisture or air. We demonstrate a solution-phase method for infiltrating methylammonium lead bromide perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3, or MAPbBr3 into nanoporous GaN which preserved the green photoluminescence of the perovskite after up to 1 year of storage under ambient conditions.

Besides a protective effect, confinement within the porous GaN matrix also resulted in a blueshift of the perovskite emission with decreasing pore size, suggesting an additional templating effect of the pores on the size of the perovskite crystals within. We investigate the dynamic of the charge recombination process in perovskite, proving the confinement effect of GaN on perovskite. We anticipate that our method may be generalized to related perovskite materials, offering a route to producing composites of interest for use in optoelectronic devices for various applications.

Resume : Perovskite nanomaterials have attracted extensive attention in recent decade owing to their high photoluminescence quantum yield, narrow emission spectrum, high colour purity, and emission wavelength tunable across the entire visible spectrum. Therefore, perovskite nanomaterials are promising candidates for next-generation solid-state lighting sources and display devices. Nevertheless, short working lifetime and non-radiative losses are considered as major problems of these material systems.

These problems need to be resolved urgently for practical applications of perovskite light emitters. In my contribution, I will present green perovskite nanocrystals CsPbBr3 and FAPbBr3 synthesized by a new, fast and oleic-acid-free synthetic method at room temperature. I will also share our results on the dynamics of emissive excitons of CsPbBr3 and FAPbBr3 nanocrystals studied by transient absorption spectroscopy and ultrafast fluorescence up-conversion spectroscopy.

Such experiments allow observing how the population and energy of the excited states evolve in real time. In addition, I will present the results of optimizations of synthetic processes that are carried out to reduce non-radiative recombination and improve the efficiency of perovskites QDs LED systems. Resume : Utilizing bulky cation molecules as processing additives in perovskite solar cells PSC is a promising approach to improve device performance and stability through defect passivation.

However, high levels of additives can result in an undesirable reduction in device power conversion efficiency PCE due to the insulating behavior of additive. Here we report our investigations into a new class of bulky cation.

The results discuss how the size, concentration, and counterion of the bulky cations affect performance in PSCs. Resume : Incorporating organic polymers for defects passivation has been used for developing high performance perovskite solar cells PVSCs. However, the role of polymers on the ion migration and degradation is not yet fully understood.

Meanwhile, rare studies investigated the operational stability of devices to electrical stressing. Here, a p-type polymer PCE10 with strong polar group is used as the additive in precursor to study their effects on device performance and operational stability, and a mono-polymer polystyrene PS with negligible dipole is chosen as a reference material for comparison.

From the detailed investigations, we find that no passivation effect from the chosen polymer in perovskite as has been commonly ascribed in the community. The admittance measurement results illustrate that the improved stability is ascribed to the suppression effect of PCE10 on ion dissociation and migration during operation.

The electrical stressing tolerance increased dramatically after incorporating additive, which attributed to the obviously reduced mobile ion concentration. This study demonstrates a facile strategy to enhance device stability without sacrificing efficiency and provides insight into the thorough understanding on the suppression effect of polymer on the ion dissociation and degradation in perovskite.

Resume : The trap states in methylammonium lead iodide MAPbI3 perovskites are the main factor for the loss of the photogenerated charges in the solar cells, i. The deactivation of the trap states can improve the power conversion efficiency. Optical illumination is one of methods to execute the de-activation of trap states.

The de-activation kinetics of trap states is investigated by the photoluminescence PL. The PL intensity increases with time because of the de-activation of trap states. The increase time of PL intensity with illumination power is studied. The saturation time constant of PL intensity is inversely proportional to the illumination power, and the equation for the de-activation is obtained.

It is found the de-activation is due to the photoreaction to MAPbI3, but not the filling of the trap states. This results shed light on the properties of the trap states in MAPbI3. Resume : Thin films of metal chalogenides have been widely used in different applications such as superconducting films, magnetic films, diamond-like films, surface modification, microelectronic devices, hard coatings, photoconductors, IR detectors, solar selective coatings, optical imaging, solar cells, sensors, optical mass memories.

The aim of this work is to investigate the conductivity of CdS and CuS films under the light and without it, in order to determine their prospects for organic optoelectronics. The study found that the conductivity of polymer films is independent of light. The basic mechanisms of conductivity are established, depending on the concentration of nanocrystals in the polymers. Photoluminescence intensity of the nanocomposite thin? PL nanocrystals CdS impurities, both undetected and doped with low concentrations of Cu and Zn caused by radiation recombination of nonequilibrium charge on their surface defects.

Resume : Two-dimensional molecular crystals[1,2] 2DMCs featuring a monolayer ML or few layers of molecules, possess advantages such as long-range molecular ordering, minimized concentration of charge traps, the absence of grain boundaries, providing exciting prospects for opto electronic applications.

Using n-type doping to enhance the electronic conductivity of organic semiconductors are commonly used in devices and hence of interest to explore for 2DMCs. We compared the 2DMCs films with doping of more disordered spin-coated films, exploring the effect of crystallinity and localization on the doping-induced evolution of the induced polaronic gap states. B , 86, Resume : Colloidal semiconductor nanoplatelets NPLs are regarded as a new, highly promising class of optoelectronic materials thanks to their efficient and narrowband luminescence.

NPL-LEDs typically take advantage of the incorporation of organic or inorganic interfacial layers as charge regulators to ensure charge balancing and high performance. However, as recently reported, the operational stability of devices is mostly affected by the intrinsic acidity and high hygroscopic nature of PEDOT:PSS. In this communication, we are proposing a new hybrid ink as interfacial layer, based on a self-doped conductive conjugated polyelectrolyte and exfoliated molybdenum disulfide MoS2 flakes as an alternative to PEDOT:PSS with the main aim to prolong the lifetime of multilayer solution-processed NPL-LEDs.

The ink features a neutral pH and a tunable hydrophobicity driven by the MoS2 content. Resume : Organic electrochemical transistors OECTs based logic circuits have broad applications in flexible sensors, actuators, and artificial synapses. However, most of the reported OECTs circuits are only constructed by p-type transistors, while complementary circuits are less developed.

Complementary circuits can simplify circuit design, reduce device power consumption, and improve switching performance. Here, we reported the first example of flexible all-printed complementary OECT logic circuits. Employing surfactant-free p-type and n-type organic semiconductor inks in alcohol, complementary OECT logic circuits are printed by simple screen and inkjet printing.

With rational designed hydrogel electrolyte, these solid-state complementary OECT logic circuits presents high electrical performance, with inverter switching gain value of up to 25 at a supply voltage below 0. We demonstrate these printed complementary OECT logic circuits can be used in signal monitoring and amplification of human electrooculography and plants movement. Resume : Dispersed ruthenium oxide RuO2 nanoparticles on W18O49 nanorods with rich oxygen vacancy has been generated by a facile, low-cost two-step solvothermal approach and subsequently characterized for energy storage application.

The rational design and controlled synthesis of the hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine-tuning of the properties and functions. The remarkable electrochemical activity of the nanostructure is due to the development of oxygen vacancy, RuO2 active sites, and nanostructure networks which maximize the available sites and surface area for the electrolyte ions.

The Galvanostatic charging-discharging GCD mechanism of the hybrid nanostructure suggests the transformation from the Pseudocapacitor? These findings will have a profound effect on understanding and mechanism of the surface-induced vacancy to the process of electrochemical activity in terms of energy storage.

Resume : Multiple metal selenides MMSs have drawn pronounced attraction as promising anodes for sodium ion batteries SIBs owing to their greatly enhanced electrochemical performances originating from the superior intrinsic conductivities and richer redox sites, compared to single-metal chalcogenides.

Moreover, the use of binder in electrode manufacturing not only causes dead weight inclusion, but also reduces the exposed surface area of active material. Carbon fiber cores not only act as intimate current collecting conductive highways for electron transport but also provide strength needed for self-standing electrode of battery.

A simple and scalable hydrothermal strategy was employed with to prepare nanowire or nanosphere like morphologies of precursors were prepared under different conditions which were then selenized under optimized conditions to obtain corresponding MMSs.

Structure robustness of cycled electrodes was also evaluated via ex-situ X-ray diffraction and various microscopic analysis techniques. We are confident that the presented strategy will pave the way for facile synthesis of a large family of MMSs with carbon fiber hybrids which are the potential materials for energy storage and conversion systems. Charge transport is intrinsically dependent on processes occurring across multiple lengthscales. In order to access order parameters at the molecular scale we use charge modulation spectroscopy combined with theory.

This technique allows us to further differentiate field-induced and doping-induced charges. Furthermore, we study the mesoscale organization of polymers using new techniques in the transmission electron microscope. These techniques are used on homopolymers and donor-acceptor copolymers and allow to extract information about the microstructure that is typically not visible by inspection.

Such multiscale studies of microstructure are instrumental in guiding our understanding of charge transport in conjugated polymers. Resume : The fundamental structure of all organic electronic devices is a stack of thin layers sandwiched between electrodes with precise intra-layer morphology and inter-layer interactions. The simplest stack includes an active layer composed of the organic semiconductor sandwiched between two charge selective layers.

These layers, often termed interlayer, are generally extremely thin and are used to enhance charge injection, blocking or transport. Solution processing the multilayer stack with little to no intermixing is, however, technically challenging and often incompatible with continuous roll-to-roll, high speed manufacturing. Recently, several groups, including ours, reported on self-forming interlayers generated by the spontaneous organization of additive molecules at the top or bottom of the active layer.

The additives are initially blended with the organic semiconductor in solution but segregate to an interface either during or after film processing. The application of the multilayer stack is demonstrated in an inverted organic solar cells, but is general and applicable for all organic electronic devices. The one-step three-layer processing is achieved by harnessing two different segregation mechanisms that drive migration of two additives in opposite directions to form interlayers above and below the active layer.

Generation of the trilayer, confirmed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS , leads to improved carrier collection and corroborating the usefulness of this processing methodology for simple and cheap fabrication of organic electronic devices. Resume : The performance of the organic-based electronic devices critically depends not only to the intrinsic molecular properties of the conjugated backbones but also to the supramolecular arrangement.

In this context, Raman spectroscopy can help to clarify how organic molecular solids respond to external stimuli i. We hope that this study can not only advance useful structure-property relationships but also guide the design of new pi-conjugated materials. Resume : In recent years, theoretical description of doping processes in organic materials has evolved from relying on models inherited from doped inorganic materials to using comprehensive models based on ab initio methods.

However, existing approaches lack the essential feature to explicitly link the chemical structure along with related properties of the constituting molecules to charge dynamics in doped materials. Theory Comput. We have extracted conductivity, density of states, thermal activation energy and the fraction of mobile charge carriers and assessed good agreement with existing experimental data. Our studies deliver microscopic insight on the doping process in organic semiconductors and we hereby illustrate how the used method can be applied for virtual molecular design of host-dopant combinations to increase performance e.

Resume : Charge transport in organic semiconductors such as conjugated polymers proceeds through a combination of intrachain and interchain charge transfer events. The large conformational phase space of conjugated polymers leads to disorder in the energies of charge sites and results in dispersive and temperature-dependent charge carrier dynamics. The distribution of site energies and resulting charge transport characteristics could, in principle, be inferred from the chemical structure of the material, although this is seldom straightforward.

In the limit of very stiff polymers with low conformational freedom, transport will become limited by the nature of the interchain contact points. In this work we focus on two conjugated polymers featuring different degrees of conformational freedom.

In the case of poly 9,9-dioctyl fluorene PFO we show that hole transport can be limited by formation of a specific conformational defect, the beta-phase conformer, and that the impact of the defect on the density of states, hole transport dynamics and temperature dependent transport can be explained quantitatively in terms of the impact of the defect on the polymer?

To explore the case of intra-chain transfer-limited hole transport we study the stiff indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole polymer CIDTBT. We observe a weak degree of charge trapping, consistent with the stiff conformation indicated by persistence length measurements and molecular dynamics MD simulations and the corresponding electronic structure.

In films of this polymer, hole mobility is limited relative to transport in isolated polymer, showing that interchain charge transfer in films is the rate limiting step. This is confirmed by kinetic Monte Carlo modelling of hole transport within chain assemblies modelled using MD simulations. We conclude by reviewing the factors that will ultimately limit charge transport in conjugated polymers. Shi et al. Resume : Doping of organic semiconductors is typically achieved by adding heterogeneous dopant molecules to the polymer bulk, often resulting in poor stability due to dopant sublimation or aggregation.

In small-molecule donor-acceptor systems, charge transfer can yield high and stable electrical conductivities, an approach not yet explored in all-conjugated polymers. We report here on combining low-ionization energy polymers with high-electron affinity counterparts, yielding interfaces with resistivity values 5? The vacuum level shift and spin signals observed in UPS and EPR measurements, respectively, are attributed to the formation of polarons via spontaneous electron transfer at the interfaces.

UV-Vis absorption, combined with quantum-chemical calculations, further revealed that both negative and positive polarons are present in the bilayer. We further transferred this concept to 3D all-polymer bulk heterojunctions, obtaining as high conductivity as and superior thermal stability to the equivalent single polymer films doped with molecular dopants.

As no mobile dopants are used to dope the system, our findings hold promise for electro-active composites of potential use in, for example, thermoelectrics and wearable electronics. The incorporated Alq3 molecules adsorb onto the grain boundaries of ZnO crystallites and act as scattering centers, thus decreasing the film transparency slightly less than pristine ZnO film The band-edge emission nm of ZnO upon incorporation of Alq3 in the hybrid films show a four-fold enhancement due to the transfer of excited state energy of Alq3 molecule to ZnO.

These studies will be discussed in detail. The electron-only devices were made using the hybrid thin films and the device electrical properties with higher electron current in the device will be discussed and presented in the manuscript. Resume : Type-II heterostructures are an effective way to separate electron hole pairs, which are desirable for photoelectrochemical and photochemical water splitting.

The design of efficient coherent Type-II heterostructure depends on the band gap, band edge positions of exposed facets, translational symmetry at interface, atomic configurations and lattice strain between miller indices of exposed facets. Beyond a critical value, lower band gap is desirable to capture maximum solar radiation, appropriate band edge positions are necessary to perform redox reactions and coherent interface is desirable to avoid defects and trap states.

Semiconductor materials can exist in various crystal structurers from bulk to nanoscale level depending upon synthesis methods and can be classified as? Native structure is thermodynamically stable bulk structure whereas non-native structures have different discrete translation symmetry from their counter native structure. These structures will also have different physical and chemical properties due to their different chemical coordination.

We use density functional simulations to calibrate the band gap as well as band edge positions of native and non-native structures of widely used semiconductors such as: TiO2, ZnO, BiVO4, CdSe and ZnS. Band edge calculations show that most of the polymorphs are not only suitable for oxygen evolution reaction but also for hydrogen evolution reaction. On the basis of band edge positions, several isomaterial and heteromaterial type-II combinations of heterostructures have been explored in which out of materials have type-II combinations.

However, when of coherency and lattice strain of interface is enforced, screening to account for complement translation symmetry, motif positions and lattice mismatch significantly restricted the combinations to We also discuss qualitatively the decrease in the driving force for electron-hole separation in incoherent interfaces. The study demonstrates importance of coherency at the interface and brings of the ramifications of the lack of coherency in terms of efficiency of electron-hole separation.

In this work, we picked up two commercialized polymers as the precursor to produce SiOC anode materials: 1. Dow Corning SylgardTM silicone elastomer and 2. Both of these polymers undergo same simple pyrolysis process at in argon atmosphere for three hours. For materials characterization, the chemical bonding in the commercialized polymers precursors were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the derived SiOC materials were characterized by both X- ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope.

Specific surface area was also tested by BET measurement, and the carbon content for both of the derived SiOC materials were obtained from thermogravimetric analyzer. The excellent capacity performance is attributed to the free carbon phase which contains sp3 disordered carbon bonding leading to a great amount of nanovoids where lithium atoms storage can take place; while the Si-O-C glass phase attribute in the structure stability thus enhance the cycle retention.

Resume : Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes SWCNTs are a class of 1D material consisting of very high aspect ratio cylinders of sp2 hybridized carbon and possess exceptional electronic and physical properties. Since their discovery, SWCNTs have been incorporated into a variety of electrical applications, including photovoltaics. Nature , ? Nature Mater 8, ? Small Methods 3, 4 Habisreutinger, S. ACS Energy Lett.

Resume : Among the various technologies that convert incident solar radiation into electricity, the Dye-sensitized solar cells DSSCs stand out. However, this device has low power-conversion-efficiency, which is a barrier to their use in the photovoltaic market. The metal-organic frameworks MOFs have receive considerable attention in photovoltaic applications due to their properties as: tunable porosity and long-distance internal energy migration pathways.

MOFs are hybrid materials constructed by the combination of organic binders and inorganic nodes. Currently, ZnO has been used as an alternative material for the manufacture of photoanode, it exhibits electron mobility and electron diffusion coefficient.

Considering these facts, the expected advantages of the combination ZnO and Zr-MOF have encouraged us to exploit them in the development of a photoanode for possible application in DSSC devices. The characterizations technics confirmed the composite material formation. The BET analysis shows a significant increase in the surface area and of the pore volume in the composite material in comparision of the pure ZnO.

Resume : Charge transport in inverted polymer solar cell incorporating Ta2O5 cathode buffer layer CBL is investigated in this work. Scanning electron microscopy images of the films show small island-like features. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the films to be polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. It is observed from optical measurements such as UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence that the Ta2O5 films show absorbance around nm and the emission to be blue-shifted.

The results indicating improvement in charge transport behavior in the device due to Ta2O5 deposited at higher substrate temperature will be discussed in detail. Resume : Manifested by high absorption coefficient, large carrier diffusion length, ambipolar charge transport and moderate mobility of charge carriers, organo-lead halide perovskites recently emerging as a promising candidate for high efficiency and low-cost solution-processed solar cells, needs no introduction.

Perovskite Solar Cells PSCs have already gathered considerable attention, showing a tremendous hike in efficiency from 3. A lot of research has been done on the efficiency improvement of PSCs by optimization of the film morphology at the interfaces by various characterization techniques including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS in a solid-state active device geometry.

Li et. Here, we have studied the kinetics of charge transfer and diffusion at the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite-liquid electrolyte interface under the effect of applied bias. By applying the different dc bias from 0 to 1V and 0 to -1V, it was found that the ion diffusion at the low-frequency regime gets modulated due to charge accumulation. The charge transport resistance is initially increased to a maximum at around 0.

A transition state is observed at around 0. However, at higher applied bias voltage charge transport resistance increases again and capacitance starts to decrease due to excess ion accumulation. The perovskite films show a similar trend of change in impedance under both positive and negative bias. The Mott-Schottky Plot for forward and reverse voltage scan shows n-type and p-type behavior which indicates the ambipolar nature of perovskite semiconductor.

The significant difference in the impedance spectra can be seen in dark and light which is attributed to the high absorption coefficient of the perovskite material. We have proposed a model to explain the charging kinetics across the perovskite-liquid electrolyte interface. Science , , ? ACS Appl. The main goal of the work is to study the changes in structural and optical properties to be used for energy conversion devices with annealing temperature of oC.

XRD results confirm the crystalline phases of treated SnOx and NiOx thin films at oC, whereas, TiOx and MoOx layers show amorphous phase and confirm the requirement of high annealing temperature for crystallinity. As expected, metal to oxygen ratios vary significantly as confirmed by EDS and XPS study with a deficiency of oxygen atoms in the films, which confirms the semiconducting behavior of such metal oxide films.

The FESEM images illustrate that the surface morphology and the average grain size of the films are strongly dependent on the process parameters of the evaporated films. For the studied annealed films, refractive index values vary between 2 and 3. Later, a numerical approach has been considered to investigate the role of optical parameters as experimentally measured by integrating such layers in an optimized energy conversion device structure.

Resume : For the high efficient water splitting system, it is necessary to lower the overpotential value in the oxygen evolution reaction OER by electrocatalysts. To replace the currently widely used expensive noble metal catalysts RuO2, Pt , many researchers have reported metal nitrides NixFeyN, NixN, and CoxN due to their superior electrocatalytic properties. Furthermore, as stability issues arise in energy fields, encapsulation nitrogen doped carbon shell have been studied by many researchers.

Despite the efforts of many researchers, improving electrochemical properties with control of stable morphology and structures is one of the challenging issues. The Co3N nanocubes with diameters of nm, which has been reported outstanding electrochemical performance by Dr. Kang, were coated with nm of N-doped carbon shell. Also, specific surface area is analyzed by BET.

Resume : energy conversion materials, Bi-functional electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction OER and oxygen reduction reaction ORR on the air cathodes are the heart of the key in metal-air batteries and reversible fuel cells. Rechargeable metal-air batteries are renewable and eco-friendly sustainable energies that has the potential to replace fossil fuels in the future.

However, the high cost and scarcity of these noble metals seriously hinders the mass process and application. Consequently, Recent research results have focused on the development of catalysts using transition metals and carbon materials based that have abundant reserves rather than noble metals. Herein, we successfully synthesized CoFe 3D N-doped graphene hybrid composite for bi-functional electrocatalyst material through two-step process with hydrothermal method and annealing.

The crystallinity of sample was confirmed by XRD. Furthermore, we analyzed electrochemical properties of synthesized sample. Resume : An important approach to a sustainable energy future is via the energy conversions based on?

However, most of the reported electrocatalysts were aiming at only HER or OER half reaction under a particular electrolyte condition i. Multistage modulation of the height of the SB at the junction was also successfully demonstrated by integrating two PENGs with ion gel. This work presents an efficient method for harnessing the piezopotential generated from PENG to actively control the operation of flexible electronics through external mechanical stimuli.

Resume : Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries LIBs are promising power sources that are currently used in many portable electronic devices and electric vehicles due to their high energy density, high operating voltage, low self-discharge, long cycle-life, and low toxicity. One of the interesting and promising polymers for preparation of solid polymer electrolytes SPEs is poly dimethylsiloxane PDMS which has a very low Tg of oC, high flexibility of the polymer chains and large free volume.

First, PDMS was acrylated with acryloyl chloride. After, polymer blend with photoinitiator casted onto glass plate and exposed to UV-crosslinking for 3 min. Obtained films were dried under vacuum at 60? All performed procedure was conducted in the argon-filled glove box. FTIR spectroscopies were used to confirm the structure of polymer films. According to TGA results main degradation of polymer electrolytes starts from about oC.

Obtained transparent SPEs have excellent mechanical properties and good flexibility. Coin cells were assembled with blocking electrodes using prepared SPEs and exhibited electrochemical stability above 4. The ionic conductivities were determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS analysis. The impedance measurements were carried out with frequency ranges from 10 Hz to 1 MHz from room temperature to 90 oC with a temperature interval of 5 oC.

Acknowledgements This research was supported by the targeted state program BR? Resume : With a three-electron redox-mechanism-based high capacity, Al-ion-based electrochemical battery capacitor systems are expected to provide high capacity, low cost and high safety to meet the increasing energy demands. The freestanding composite film with a hierarchical porous structure is prepared through vacuum-assisted curing of a mixed dispersion containing PEDOT:PSS on carbon cloth substrate.

Resume : Galvanic replacement GR reactions have emerged as a versatile tool in the creation of hybrid materials. Traditionally, a GR reaction involves exchange of metal cations which occur due to the favorable difference in the electrochemical potentials of the two metals involved. The interface allows stabilization of the oxidation state of the outgoing metal ion as well as the incoming metal during the GR process.

However, a GR reaction involving an exchange of two anions has not been achieved. The rich optical property of CuTCNQ, which is well-known, is further enhanced due to the formation of a hybrid and results in a significant enhancement of redox catalytic reactions under light illumination.

However, solution processed perovskite PS film contains many charge traps at the grain boundaries and on the surface, leading to increased non-radiative recombination, and instability of the PS film in air due to humidity. Surface passivation is a common solution for minimizing charge traps and protecting the surface from the moisture in air. Resume : Drastic industrialization and increasing use of fossil fuels caused tremendous climate change by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration.

So development of photocatalyst for reducing carbon dioxide to useful fuel with high efficiency and stability is great issue. In natural photosynthesis, leaf shows significant efficiency and stability by combination of three dimensional structure and Z-scheme catalytic system. Three dimensional structure of copper oxide nanowire mesh enhanced adsorption, mass transportation. And Z-schematic electron flow between bismuth vanadate and copper oxide enhanced charge separation and transport with high redox potential.

And also mediation by ultrathin carbon layer enhances charge transport between two catalysts and enhances stability by protecting copper oxide. And also shows methane production that is higher hydrocarbon. This work provides ideal artificial photosynthesis system for carbon dioxide reduction with high conversion rate and stability that can be developed as practical catalyst for sustainable fuel synthesis and solution of environmental problem.

Resume : Porphyrins as a new class of hole transporter represent a promising alternative for perovskite solar cells since the initial study in In this poster, we present a series of Prophyrin-based molecules designed and optimized as hole transporting materials HTMs for perovskite solar cells. The rational design concepts and structural effect on their photovoltaic performance are investigated. We find that the electronic communication between molecules significantly influences the carrier transporting behavior and their PV characteristics.

Structural modification by using dimeric porphyrin core unit yields brand new efficient porphyrin HTM WT3 which improves device efficiency up to The red-shift and broaden absorption spectra of spin-coated solid film is a highly relevant indicator for the molecule coupling and thus corresponds well to the device performances. Apart from the excellent power conversion efficiency, the porphyrin-based HTMs also demonstrated good stability and moisture resistance with appropriate design.

They are surface-functionalized carbonaceous nanoparticles with very good optical properties, like the intense fluorescence which can be tuned in visible by changing the excitation wavelength. These characteristics along with their non-toxicity and low fabrication costs make CQDs attractive for photocatalysis, optoelectronics, or biological applications. CQDs come into several structural types like graphene quantum dots, graphite quantum dots several graphene quantum dots in stacked structucture , or amorphous carbon quantum dots.

Despite many advances, several important issues still remain open regarding the optical response of CQDs such as their interaction with the environment or the origin of fluorescence tunability. Our calculations are consistent with the scenario by which the photoluminescence response is a combination of at least two sources: one is the core with subsequent quantization effects and the other resides in functional groups that induce levels in the bandgap.

The most promising lead-free candidate has been regarded as tin-based halide perovskite materials due to their similar or even better optical properties to lead-based counterparts such as energy bandgap and charge mobility. However, their solar cells suffer from low open-circuit voltages VOC arising from mismatched energy levels between tin-based perovskite layer and charge transporting layers CTLs in their structure.

In this presentation, we report that a new device structure for tin-based perovskite solar cell. As a result, the newly designed tin-based perovskite solar cell achieves a power conversion efficiency of 7. This work highlights the importance of redesigning device structures for Sn-based perovskite solar cells. Resume : Layered Mo based semiconductors with mono- or few-layer thickness can potentially advance many applications, ranging from optoelectronics, photo catalysis and sensors.

By first-principles DFT calculations at HSE06 level and Boltzmann transport theory, we explore the electronic, charge transport and optical properties of relevant lamellar materials: alpha-MoO3 with large band gap 2. To tune their properties, we modify their respective chemical compositions by exchanging O and S inside the two materials at various concentrations. Substituting sulfur atoms by oxygen atoms on 2H-MoS2 does not alter significantly the electronic band gap.

This theoretical work opens new perspectives for the further investigation of lamellar oxy-sulfide materials. In particular, we are currently investigating the corresponding properties of monolayer structure of the corresponding 2D materials.

Resume : Solar water evaporation has been considered as a promising technique to harvest solar energy for the practicable water purification. However, current technology for solar water purification is severely hindering by insufficient solar utilization and complicated operation. Thus, achieving efficient solar absorber that can strengthen the solar energy utilization and improve water purification efficiency remain highly desirable.

Herein, we report the development of charge-transfer cocrystals CTC that afford absorption-tunable, ultra-stable organic solar absorbers to support efficient water evaporation. By modulating the combination of both donor and acceptor units through charge-transfer effects, full-solar absorbing performance can be realized to achieve good photothermal conversion. This CTC-doped 3D scaffold is designed and fabricated, and our design results in an efficient solar- evaporation rate of 1.

Importantly, water purification of seawater, dyestuff pollution, heavy metal, and microorganism pollution are realized and achieve a high purification efficiency of The charge-transfer-mediated approach may offer a major step forward in manufacturing solar absorbers toward practical water purification. Resume : Co-evaporation can fabricate high quality perovskite absorbers for solar cells, but this fabrication route is still largely underexplored, as most research groups focus on cheap and fast, but industrially unattractive wet-chemical processes.

At MLU, we develop dynamic co-evaporation processes for mixed halide perovskites and try to find new material combination with better performance and higher stability. In this contribution, we investigate the film formation during the growth of hybrid lead halide perovskites by co-evaporation with the aid of in situ XRD diagnostics. We are able to resolve secondary phases already during growth and our time-resolved measurements allows us to report on the kinetics of film formation and thermal degradation.

Resume : Halide perovskites hold exceptional promise as cheap, low temperature solution-processed optoelectronic materials. Yet they are hindered by poor structural and chemical stability, rapidly degrading when exposed to moisture or air. We demonstrate a solution-phase method for infiltrating methylammonium lead bromide perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3, or MAPbBr3 into nanoporous GaN which preserved the green photoluminescence of the perovskite after up to 1 year of storage under ambient conditions.

Besides a protective effect, confinement within the porous GaN matrix also resulted in a blueshift of the perovskite emission with decreasing pore size, suggesting an additional templating effect of the pores on the size of the perovskite crystals within. We investigate the dynamic of the charge recombination process in perovskite, proving the confinement effect of GaN on perovskite.

We anticipate that our method may be generalized to related perovskite materials, offering a route to producing composites of interest for use in optoelectronic devices for various applications. Resume : Perovskite nanomaterials have attracted extensive attention in recent decade owing to their high photoluminescence quantum yield, narrow emission spectrum, high colour purity, and emission wavelength tunable across the entire visible spectrum.

Therefore, perovskite nanomaterials are promising candidates for next-generation solid-state lighting sources and display devices. Nevertheless, short working lifetime and non-radiative losses are considered as major problems of these material systems. These problems need to be resolved urgently for practical applications of perovskite light emitters. In my contribution, I will present green perovskite nanocrystals CsPbBr3 and FAPbBr3 synthesized by a new, fast and oleic-acid-free synthetic method at room temperature.

I will also share our results on the dynamics of emissive excitons of CsPbBr3 and FAPbBr3 nanocrystals studied by transient absorption spectroscopy and ultrafast fluorescence up-conversion spectroscopy. Such experiments allow observing how the population and energy of the excited states evolve in real time.

In addition, I will present the results of optimizations of synthetic processes that are carried out to reduce non-radiative recombination and improve the efficiency of perovskites QDs LED systems. Resume : Utilizing bulky cation molecules as processing additives in perovskite solar cells PSC is a promising approach to improve device performance and stability through defect passivation.

However, high levels of additives can result in an undesirable reduction in device power conversion efficiency PCE due to the insulating behavior of additive. Here we report our investigations into a new class of bulky cation. The results discuss how the size, concentration, and counterion of the bulky cations affect performance in PSCs. Resume : Incorporating organic polymers for defects passivation has been used for developing high performance perovskite solar cells PVSCs.

However, the role of polymers on the ion migration and degradation is not yet fully understood. Meanwhile, rare studies investigated the operational stability of devices to electrical stressing. Here, a p-type polymer PCE10 with strong polar group is used as the additive in precursor to study their effects on device performance and operational stability, and a mono-polymer polystyrene PS with negligible dipole is chosen as a reference material for comparison.

From the detailed investigations, we find that no passivation effect from the chosen polymer in perovskite as has been commonly ascribed in the community. The admittance measurement results illustrate that the improved stability is ascribed to the suppression effect of PCE10 on ion dissociation and migration during operation.

The electrical stressing tolerance increased dramatically after incorporating additive, which attributed to the obviously reduced mobile ion concentration. This study demonstrates a facile strategy to enhance device stability without sacrificing efficiency and provides insight into the thorough understanding on the suppression effect of polymer on the ion dissociation and degradation in perovskite.

Resume : The trap states in methylammonium lead iodide MAPbI3 perovskites are the main factor for the loss of the photogenerated charges in the solar cells, i. The deactivation of the trap states can improve the power conversion efficiency.

Optical illumination is one of methods to execute the de-activation of trap states. The de-activation kinetics of trap states is investigated by the photoluminescence PL. The PL intensity increases with time because of the de-activation of trap states. The increase time of PL intensity with illumination power is studied. The saturation time constant of PL intensity is inversely proportional to the illumination power, and the equation for the de-activation is obtained.

It is found the de-activation is due to the photoreaction to MAPbI3, but not the filling of the trap states. This results shed light on the properties of the trap states in MAPbI3. Resume : Thin films of metal chalogenides have been widely used in different applications such as superconducting films, magnetic films, diamond-like films, surface modification, microelectronic devices, hard coatings, photoconductors, IR detectors, solar selective coatings, optical imaging, solar cells, sensors, optical mass memories.

The aim of this work is to investigate the conductivity of CdS and CuS films under the light and without it, in order to determine their prospects for organic optoelectronics. The study found that the conductivity of polymer films is independent of light. The basic mechanisms of conductivity are established, depending on the concentration of nanocrystals in the polymers. Photoluminescence intensity of the nanocomposite thin? PL nanocrystals CdS impurities, both undetected and doped with low concentrations of Cu and Zn caused by radiation recombination of nonequilibrium charge on their surface defects.

Resume : Two-dimensional molecular crystals[1,2] 2DMCs featuring a monolayer ML or few layers of molecules, possess advantages such as long-range molecular ordering, minimized concentration of charge traps, the absence of grain boundaries, providing exciting prospects for opto electronic applications.

Using n-type doping to enhance the electronic conductivity of organic semiconductors are commonly used in devices and hence of interest to explore for 2DMCs. We compared the 2DMCs films with doping of more disordered spin-coated films, exploring the effect of crystallinity and localization on the doping-induced evolution of the induced polaronic gap states. B , 86, Resume : Colloidal semiconductor nanoplatelets NPLs are regarded as a new, highly promising class of optoelectronic materials thanks to their efficient and narrowband luminescence.

NPL-LEDs typically take advantage of the incorporation of organic or inorganic interfacial layers as charge regulators to ensure charge balancing and high performance. However, as recently reported, the operational stability of devices is mostly affected by the intrinsic acidity and high hygroscopic nature of PEDOT:PSS. In this communication, we are proposing a new hybrid ink as interfacial layer, based on a self-doped conductive conjugated polyelectrolyte and exfoliated molybdenum disulfide MoS2 flakes as an alternative to PEDOT:PSS with the main aim to prolong the lifetime of multilayer solution-processed NPL-LEDs.

The ink features a neutral pH and a tunable hydrophobicity driven by the MoS2 content. Resume : Organic electrochemical transistors OECTs based logic circuits have broad applications in flexible sensors, actuators, and artificial synapses.

However, most of the reported OECTs circuits are only constructed by p-type transistors, while complementary circuits are less developed. Complementary circuits can simplify circuit design, reduce device power consumption, and improve switching performance.

Here, we reported the first example of flexible all-printed complementary OECT logic circuits. Employing surfactant-free p-type and n-type organic semiconductor inks in alcohol, complementary OECT logic circuits are printed by simple screen and inkjet printing. With rational designed hydrogel electrolyte, these solid-state complementary OECT logic circuits presents high electrical performance, with inverter switching gain value of up to 25 at a supply voltage below 0. We demonstrate these printed complementary OECT logic circuits can be used in signal monitoring and amplification of human electrooculography and plants movement.

Resume : Dispersed ruthenium oxide RuO2 nanoparticles on W18O49 nanorods with rich oxygen vacancy has been generated by a facile, low-cost two-step solvothermal approach and subsequently characterized for energy storage application. The rational design and controlled synthesis of the hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine-tuning of the properties and functions. The remarkable electrochemical activity of the nanostructure is due to the development of oxygen vacancy, RuO2 active sites, and nanostructure networks which maximize the available sites and surface area for the electrolyte ions.

The Galvanostatic charging-discharging GCD mechanism of the hybrid nanostructure suggests the transformation from the Pseudocapacitor? These findings will have a profound effect on understanding and mechanism of the surface-induced vacancy to the process of electrochemical activity in terms of energy storage. Resume : Multiple metal selenides MMSs have drawn pronounced attraction as promising anodes for sodium ion batteries SIBs owing to their greatly enhanced electrochemical performances originating from the superior intrinsic conductivities and richer redox sites, compared to single-metal chalcogenides.

Moreover, the use of binder in electrode manufacturing not only causes dead weight inclusion, but also reduces the exposed surface area of active material. Carbon fiber cores not only act as intimate current collecting conductive highways for electron transport but also provide strength needed for self-standing electrode of battery.

A simple and scalable hydrothermal strategy was employed with to prepare nanowire or nanosphere like morphologies of precursors were prepared under different conditions which were then selenized under optimized conditions to obtain corresponding MMSs. Structure robustness of cycled electrodes was also evaluated via ex-situ X-ray diffraction and various microscopic analysis techniques. We are confident that the presented strategy will pave the way for facile synthesis of a large family of MMSs with carbon fiber hybrids which are the potential materials for energy storage and conversion systems.

Charge transport is intrinsically dependent on processes occurring across multiple lengthscales. In order to access order parameters at the molecular scale we use charge modulation spectroscopy combined with theory. This technique allows us to further differentiate field-induced and doping-induced charges. Furthermore, we study the mesoscale organization of polymers using new techniques in the transmission electron microscope. These techniques are used on homopolymers and donor-acceptor copolymers and allow to extract information about the microstructure that is typically not visible by inspection.

Such multiscale studies of microstructure are instrumental in guiding our understanding of charge transport in conjugated polymers. Resume : The fundamental structure of all organic electronic devices is a stack of thin layers sandwiched between electrodes with precise intra-layer morphology and inter-layer interactions. The simplest stack includes an active layer composed of the organic semiconductor sandwiched between two charge selective layers. These layers, often termed interlayer, are generally extremely thin and are used to enhance charge injection, blocking or transport.

Solution processing the multilayer stack with little to no intermixing is, however, technically challenging and often incompatible with continuous roll-to-roll, high speed manufacturing. Recently, several groups, including ours, reported on self-forming interlayers generated by the spontaneous organization of additive molecules at the top or bottom of the active layer. The additives are initially blended with the organic semiconductor in solution but segregate to an interface either during or after film processing.

The application of the multilayer stack is demonstrated in an inverted organic solar cells, but is general and applicable for all organic electronic devices. The one-step three-layer processing is achieved by harnessing two different segregation mechanisms that drive migration of two additives in opposite directions to form interlayers above and below the active layer. Generation of the trilayer, confirmed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS , leads to improved carrier collection and corroborating the usefulness of this processing methodology for simple and cheap fabrication of organic electronic devices.

Resume : The performance of the organic-based electronic devices critically depends not only to the intrinsic molecular properties of the conjugated backbones but also to the supramolecular arrangement. In this context, Raman spectroscopy can help to clarify how organic molecular solids respond to external stimuli i.

We hope that this study can not only advance useful structure-property relationships but also guide the design of new pi-conjugated materials. Resume : In recent years, theoretical description of doping processes in organic materials has evolved from relying on models inherited from doped inorganic materials to using comprehensive models based on ab initio methods.

However, existing approaches lack the essential feature to explicitly link the chemical structure along with related properties of the constituting molecules to charge dynamics in doped materials. Theory Comput. We have extracted conductivity, density of states, thermal activation energy and the fraction of mobile charge carriers and assessed good agreement with existing experimental data. Our studies deliver microscopic insight on the doping process in organic semiconductors and we hereby illustrate how the used method can be applied for virtual molecular design of host-dopant combinations to increase performance e.

Resume : Charge transport in organic semiconductors such as conjugated polymers proceeds through a combination of intrachain and interchain charge transfer events. The large conformational phase space of conjugated polymers leads to disorder in the energies of charge sites and results in dispersive and temperature-dependent charge carrier dynamics. The distribution of site energies and resulting charge transport characteristics could, in principle, be inferred from the chemical structure of the material, although this is seldom straightforward.

In the limit of very stiff polymers with low conformational freedom, transport will become limited by the nature of the interchain contact points. In this work we focus on two conjugated polymers featuring different degrees of conformational freedom. In the case of poly 9,9-dioctyl fluorene PFO we show that hole transport can be limited by formation of a specific conformational defect, the beta-phase conformer, and that the impact of the defect on the density of states, hole transport dynamics and temperature dependent transport can be explained quantitatively in terms of the impact of the defect on the polymer?

To explore the case of intra-chain transfer-limited hole transport we study the stiff indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole polymer CIDTBT. We observe a weak degree of charge trapping, consistent with the stiff conformation indicated by persistence length measurements and molecular dynamics MD simulations and the corresponding electronic structure.

In films of this polymer, hole mobility is limited relative to transport in isolated polymer, showing that interchain charge transfer in films is the rate limiting step. This is confirmed by kinetic Monte Carlo modelling of hole transport within chain assemblies modelled using MD simulations. We conclude by reviewing the factors that will ultimately limit charge transport in conjugated polymers. Shi et al. Resume : Doping of organic semiconductors is typically achieved by adding heterogeneous dopant molecules to the polymer bulk, often resulting in poor stability due to dopant sublimation or aggregation.

In small-molecule donor-acceptor systems, charge transfer can yield high and stable electrical conductivities, an approach not yet explored in all-conjugated polymers. We report here on combining low-ionization energy polymers with high-electron affinity counterparts, yielding interfaces with resistivity values 5?

The vacuum level shift and spin signals observed in UPS and EPR measurements, respectively, are attributed to the formation of polarons via spontaneous electron transfer at the interfaces. UV-Vis absorption, combined with quantum-chemical calculations, further revealed that both negative and positive polarons are present in the bilayer.

We further transferred this concept to 3D all-polymer bulk heterojunctions, obtaining as high conductivity as and superior thermal stability to the equivalent single polymer films doped with molecular dopants. As no mobile dopants are used to dope the system, our findings hold promise for electro-active composites of potential use in, for example, thermoelectrics and wearable electronics.

The incorporated Alq3 molecules adsorb onto the grain boundaries of ZnO crystallites and act as scattering centers, thus decreasing the film transparency slightly less than pristine ZnO film The band-edge emission nm of ZnO upon incorporation of Alq3 in the hybrid films show a four-fold enhancement due to the transfer of excited state energy of Alq3 molecule to ZnO.

These studies will be discussed in detail. The electron-only devices were made using the hybrid thin films and the device electrical properties with higher electron current in the device will be discussed and presented in the manuscript. Resume : Type-II heterostructures are an effective way to separate electron hole pairs, which are desirable for photoelectrochemical and photochemical water splitting.

The design of efficient coherent Type-II heterostructure depends on the band gap, band edge positions of exposed facets, translational symmetry at interface, atomic configurations and lattice strain between miller indices of exposed facets. Beyond a critical value, lower band gap is desirable to capture maximum solar radiation, appropriate band edge positions are necessary to perform redox reactions and coherent interface is desirable to avoid defects and trap states.

Semiconductor materials can exist in various crystal structurers from bulk to nanoscale level depending upon synthesis methods and can be classified as? Native structure is thermodynamically stable bulk structure whereas non-native structures have different discrete translation symmetry from their counter native structure.

These structures will also have different physical and chemical properties due to their different chemical coordination. We use density functional simulations to calibrate the band gap as well as band edge positions of native and non-native structures of widely used semiconductors such as: TiO2, ZnO, BiVO4, CdSe and ZnS.

Band edge calculations show that most of the polymorphs are not only suitable for oxygen evolution reaction but also for hydrogen evolution reaction. On the basis of band edge positions, several isomaterial and heteromaterial type-II combinations of heterostructures have been explored in which out of materials have type-II combinations. However, when of coherency and lattice strain of interface is enforced, screening to account for complement translation symmetry, motif positions and lattice mismatch significantly restricted the combinations to We also discuss qualitatively the decrease in the driving force for electron-hole separation in incoherent interfaces.

The study demonstrates importance of coherency at the interface and brings of the ramifications of the lack of coherency in terms of efficiency of electron-hole separation. In this work, we picked up two commercialized polymers as the precursor to produce SiOC anode materials: 1. Dow Corning SylgardTM silicone elastomer and 2. Both of these polymers undergo same simple pyrolysis process at in argon atmosphere for three hours.

For materials characterization, the chemical bonding in the commercialized polymers precursors were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the derived SiOC materials were characterized by both X- ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope.

Specific surface area was also tested by BET measurement, and the carbon content for both of the derived SiOC materials were obtained from thermogravimetric analyzer. The excellent capacity performance is attributed to the free carbon phase which contains sp3 disordered carbon bonding leading to a great amount of nanovoids where lithium atoms storage can take place; while the Si-O-C glass phase attribute in the structure stability thus enhance the cycle retention.

Resume : Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes SWCNTs are a class of 1D material consisting of very high aspect ratio cylinders of sp2 hybridized carbon and possess exceptional electronic and physical properties. Since their discovery, SWCNTs have been incorporated into a variety of electrical applications, including photovoltaics. Nature , ? Nature Mater 8, ? Small Methods 3, 4 Habisreutinger, S.

ACS Energy Lett. Resume : Among the various technologies that convert incident solar radiation into electricity, the Dye-sensitized solar cells DSSCs stand out. However, this device has low power-conversion-efficiency, which is a barrier to their use in the photovoltaic market. The metal-organic frameworks MOFs have receive considerable attention in photovoltaic applications due to their properties as: tunable porosity and long-distance internal energy migration pathways.

MOFs are hybrid materials constructed by the combination of organic binders and inorganic nodes. Currently, ZnO has been used as an alternative material for the manufacture of photoanode, it exhibits electron mobility and electron diffusion coefficient.

Considering these facts, the expected advantages of the combination ZnO and Zr-MOF have encouraged us to exploit them in the development of a photoanode for possible application in DSSC devices. The characterizations technics confirmed the composite material formation. The BET analysis shows a significant increase in the surface area and of the pore volume in the composite material in comparision of the pure ZnO.

Resume : Charge transport in inverted polymer solar cell incorporating Ta2O5 cathode buffer layer CBL is investigated in this work. Scanning electron microscopy images of the films show small island-like features. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the films to be polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. It is observed from optical measurements such as UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence that the Ta2O5 films show absorbance around nm and the emission to be blue-shifted.

The results indicating improvement in charge transport behavior in the device due to Ta2O5 deposited at higher substrate temperature will be discussed in detail. Resume : Manifested by high absorption coefficient, large carrier diffusion length, ambipolar charge transport and moderate mobility of charge carriers, organo-lead halide perovskites recently emerging as a promising candidate for high efficiency and low-cost solution-processed solar cells, needs no introduction.

Perovskite Solar Cells PSCs have already gathered considerable attention, showing a tremendous hike in efficiency from 3. A lot of research has been done on the efficiency improvement of PSCs by optimization of the film morphology at the interfaces by various characterization techniques including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS in a solid-state active device geometry. Li et. Here, we have studied the kinetics of charge transfer and diffusion at the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite-liquid electrolyte interface under the effect of applied bias.

By applying the different dc bias from 0 to 1V and 0 to -1V, it was found that the ion diffusion at the low-frequency regime gets modulated due to charge accumulation. The charge transport resistance is initially increased to a maximum at around 0. A transition state is observed at around 0. However, at higher applied bias voltage charge transport resistance increases again and capacitance starts to decrease due to excess ion accumulation. The perovskite films show a similar trend of change in impedance under both positive and negative bias.

The Mott-Schottky Plot for forward and reverse voltage scan shows n-type and p-type behavior which indicates the ambipolar nature of perovskite semiconductor. The significant difference in the impedance spectra can be seen in dark and light which is attributed to the high absorption coefficient of the perovskite material.

We have proposed a model to explain the charging kinetics across the perovskite-liquid electrolyte interface. Science , , ? ACS Appl. The main goal of the work is to study the changes in structural and optical properties to be used for energy conversion devices with annealing temperature of oC.

XRD results confirm the crystalline phases of treated SnOx and NiOx thin films at oC, whereas, TiOx and MoOx layers show amorphous phase and confirm the requirement of high annealing temperature for crystallinity. As expected, metal to oxygen ratios vary significantly as confirmed by EDS and XPS study with a deficiency of oxygen atoms in the films, which confirms the semiconducting behavior of such metal oxide films.

The FESEM images illustrate that the surface morphology and the average grain size of the films are strongly dependent on the process parameters of the evaporated films. For the studied annealed films, refractive index values vary between 2 and 3. Later, a numerical approach has been considered to investigate the role of optical parameters as experimentally measured by integrating such layers in an optimized energy conversion device structure. Resume : For the high efficient water splitting system, it is necessary to lower the overpotential value in the oxygen evolution reaction OER by electrocatalysts.

To replace the currently widely used expensive noble metal catalysts RuO2, Pt , many researchers have reported metal nitrides NixFeyN, NixN, and CoxN due to their superior electrocatalytic properties. Furthermore, as stability issues arise in energy fields, encapsulation nitrogen doped carbon shell have been studied by many researchers.

Despite the efforts of many researchers, improving electrochemical properties with control of stable morphology and structures is one of the challenging issues. The Co3N nanocubes with diameters of nm, which has been reported outstanding electrochemical performance by Dr. Kang, were coated with nm of N-doped carbon shell. Also, specific surface area is analyzed by BET.

Resume : energy conversion materials, Bi-functional electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction OER and oxygen reduction reaction ORR on the air cathodes are the heart of the key in metal-air batteries and reversible fuel cells. Rechargeable metal-air batteries are renewable and eco-friendly sustainable energies that has the potential to replace fossil fuels in the future.

However, the high cost and scarcity of these noble metals seriously hinders the mass process and application. Consequently, Recent research results have focused on the development of catalysts using transition metals and carbon materials based that have abundant reserves rather than noble metals. Herein, we successfully synthesized CoFe 3D N-doped graphene hybrid composite for bi-functional electrocatalyst material through two-step process with hydrothermal method and annealing.

The crystallinity of sample was confirmed by XRD. Furthermore, we analyzed electrochemical properties of synthesized sample. Resume : An important approach to a sustainable energy future is via the energy conversions based on? However, most of the reported electrocatalysts were aiming at only HER or OER half reaction under a particular electrolyte condition i. Whereas in practical applications, it is highly desirable to develop a high-performance catalyst that is universally compatible pH-universal, and bi-functional for both cathode and anode , so as to enable all kinds of electrolytes to be directly used for hydrogen and oxygen production, and to optimize the reliability during operation.

It is a challenging but pressing task to design and synthesize novel, efficient, and robust pH-universal bi-functional i. The optimized electrolyzer also exhibits superior durability with small potential change over 50 h of operation, showing a class of efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for overall water splitting.

Resume : The hole transporting material HTM is a key component in part ruling both performance and stability of perovskite solar cells PSCs. In addition to its tedious and relatively expensive fabrication, this HTM shows some stability issues. In this work, new materials have thus been investigated as substitutes, including carbazole-based polymer materials, ionic liquid molecules along with polymer electrolytes.

Lithium-free molecules or macromolecules. References: 1 Geffroy, C. Solar Energy , Resume : Recent advances in the use of organic? Furthermore, the perovskite structure has the ability to host extrinsic elements, making it a promising candidate for battery field. Previous studies have shown that organic?

However, the multivalent rechargeable batteries with perovskite material have not yet been realized. In this work, these electrodes were successfully synthesis on carbon cloth through a feasible solution process.

It still delivered 81 mAh g? We anticipate that these results open a new direction for the use of organic? Resume : Perovskite solar cells based on methylammonium lead iodide CH3NH3PbI3 and related materials have emerged as an exciting development for next generation photovoltaic technologies. Solar cells based on them have achieved impressive energy conversion efficiencies, but their stability is still limited. Understanding degradation mechanisms in such materials is key to developing strategies to increase their lifetime.

The present work reports on the nanoscale characterization of perovskite photovoltaic films with respect to their stability and degradation mechanisms. We investigated the local conductance and surface potential variation of perovskite films at the nanoscale using conducting atomic force microscopy CAFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy KPFM. CAFM measurements revealed that the current is larger at grain boundaries. The surface potential at grain boundaries and on top of the grain is almost similar which suggests a negligible energy barrier at grain boundaries.

We investigated the effect of sunlight exposure on the nano-scale conductance and surface potential of perovskite thin films towards better understanding of photo-induced degradation mechanisms. Resume : Chitin nanofiber ChNF is one of a promising eco-friendly material because it is non-toxic, biocompatible, robust, and sustainable. It is also the most abundant marine polysaccharide.

This work, we demonstrate a? This is primarily because of the electrostatic interaction between the? Keywords: poly vinylidene fluoride ; chitin; ferroelectric polymer; piezoelectric nanogenerator. Resume : The Li? S based battery is a promising alternative to the present Li-ion battery for energy storage; however, the unwanted long polysulfide species affect the durability and performance of the battery due to dissolution in liquid electrolytes.

Organosulfur silanes grafted on Al current collector have been successfully demonstrated to function as a sulfur source as a cathode. A molecular-level understanding of the chemical processes and properties such as stability of intermediates, the reactivity of intermediates, and reactivity toward the organic electrolytes in the Mg? S batteries is therefore of great interest. In the present study, we exploit quantum chemical methods for in-silico characterization of Mg?

Also, the computed reduction potentials in these cases are derived and compared with experimentally observed cyclic voltammetry curves. Finally, we investigate the effect of organic electrolyte on the reduction potentials. Resume : Research in electrochemical energy storage is converging to target systems with battery-level energy density, and capacitor-level cycling stability and power density.

One approach is to utilize redox-active electrolytes that add faradaic charge storage to increase energy density of supercapacitors. However, aqueous redox-enhanced electrochemical capacitors redox ECs have performed relatively poorly, primarily due to the cross-diffusion of soluble redox couples, reduced cycle life, and low operating voltages.

This approach is demonstrated by the use of bromide catholyte and modified hydrophobic cations e. This mechanism solves the cross-diffusion issue of redox ECs without using costly ion-selective membranes, and has the added benefit of stabilizing the reactive bromine generated during charging. Using the concepts learned from this 1st generation configuration, we created a hybrid electrochemical storage system by designing and implementing stackable bipolar pouch cells with corrosion-resistant, non-metallic current collectors.

The device using ZnBr2 battery chemistry and tetrabutylammonium cations enables high-power aqueous electrochemical energy storage. To obtain a layer with a desired conductivity in structure, it is firstly need to determine a dependence of the measured property conductivity versus the technological parameter precursor flux at other given parameters growth conditions for this layer.

Based on the rocking curves obtained by X-ray diffractometry , the lattice constant of the investigated epitaxial layers was determined. In the case of Si doping the intensity and the peaks width remain approximately the same. In the case of Zn doping there is a tendency for a intensity reduce and peaks broadening with doping concentration rise.

By noncontact conductivity measurement method, the specific resistivity of the investigated layers was determined. The dopant Si and Zn concentration profiles were determined based on the distribution profiles in the structure layers. As expected, the conductivity dependence for the samples doped with Si shows a linear increase with increasing the doping component concentration disilane - Si2H6 in the gas phase.

Resume : The lithium-sulfur batteries are the best candidate for the further improvement among the powering sources due to its high theoretical capacity and affordance in the market. However, the shuttle effect produced during the cycling processes is the limitation of these batteries. As one of the solutions to inhibit shuttle effect, this study developed the ultrathin polyelectrolyte-clay nanocoating on the polypropylene PP separator though the layer-by-layer technique.

The differences in morphology of MMT and Hal nanotubes and the pH-controlled charge density of polyelectrolytes PEI and PAA tremendously influenced the thickness and performance of the layer-by-layer assemblies. Especially, The coatings at different pH resulted in the increase in electrolyte uptake, suppressed lithium dendrite growth and e enhanced discharge capacity of the cell. Moreover, the ultrathin polyelectrolyte-clay coatings notably improve thermal and dimensional stability of the PP separator.

The results of the experiment validate that ultrathin LbL clay-containing coatings on the PP separator membrane can drastically improve the cyclability of the Li-S cells and suppress the shuttle effect. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the State target program BR from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan and by the Faculty-development competitive research grant DF from Nazarbayev University.

Resume : The sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction OER is a fundamental impediment to the production of green hydrogen. Molecular catalysts for this reaction show some of the most impressive activity. This leads to the confirmation of a method-independent scaling relationship, a description of routes toward circumventing this relationship and a justification for the ascendency of Ru catalysts in this domain. In previous work, which will be described, we explain why the state-of-the-art catalysts are so active and how molecular catalysts can exhibit near-zero overpotential.

The binding energy data of the OH intermediate is used to train a machine learning model, and we describe how this can be applied to advance future catalyst screening studies. The OER could be boosted by immobilizing a molecular catalyst on a support, leading to the realization of a hybrid catalyst.

We describe recent research into immobilization strategies which include covalently tethering the catalyst and the direct grafting of molecular complexes onto a solid material. This is expected to advance the state-of-the-art in hybrid OER catalysis. Resume : For creation of photo- and electroluminescent, charge-transporting and light-absorbing materials, both organic?

Forming OM and QDs hybrid composites is of promising trend in the development of materials for optoelectronics and photovoltaic devices. In the report, hybrid composites comprising new organic semiconductors based on? The correlation between the structure of the materials and optical and electrical properties of the films including the influence of QDs on the charge mobility is discussed.

Resume : CoFeCu ternary layered hydroxides have been successfully fabricated by facile synthesis method-electrodeposition which is efficient and cost-effective. For OER, it only required a quite small overpotential of mV to reach the current density of 10 mA. Furthermore, it has also demonstrated good durability in alkaline media, indicating its great potential for practical application in industry.

Resume : Doping of organic semiconductors can be considered a key factor for improved device performance of organic electronics. However, doping is difficult to control, in particular in solution processed organic devices. The main challenges are avoiding dissolving previous layers in the device stack when depositing multilayer structures and avoiding diffusion of dopant molecules to adjacent layers.

There are several approaches for achieving well-controlled multilayer structures from solution; a common strategy is using orthogonal solvents for the different layers, unfortunately, this approach is restricted to only a few material systems due to limited solubility.

In this research work we use a new small molecule additive for azide-based crosslinking of organic semiconductors in order to produce insoluble layers and enable deposition of subsequent layers using the same solvent without intermixing of the layers. Each layer is measured individually before and after doping and crosslinking in order to clarify the effect of the different additives. Finally, complete multilayer devices are characterized for determining how deposition of subsequent layers affect the doping density and doping profile in the device stack.

Resume : Understanding fundamental processes in organic photovoltaics OPVs requires numerical models that reflect the specific features of organic materials, such as hopping transport in a disorder-broadened density of states. One natural approach for this purpose are kinetic Monte Carlo kMC simulations.

However, using kMC, it has proven to be challenging to simulate the key characteristic of any photovoltaic device, its current-voltage J-V curve under illumination. The main challenges arise from the presence of injecting contacts and the importance of charge recombination close to the open-circuit voltage. In this presentation, we demonstrate a kMC model that fully describes the J-V curve of a disordered organic solar cell [1].

We show that it crucial to make realistic assumptions on the injection barriers, the blend morphology, and the kinetics of interfacial charge-transfer states. All these properties were calibrated by independent experimental techniques such as charge extraction, electron microscopy, and transient absorption measurements.

Our calibrated model provides clear evidence that the conclusions drawn from microscopic and transient KMC modeling are indeed relevant for real operating OPV devices. Resume : The most efficient perovskite solar cells PSCs employ an n? Moreover, Lithium bis trifluoromethane sulfonimide LiTFSI is hygroscopic and accelerates the rapid deterioration of perovskite structure, leading to the lack of long-term stability of PSCs.

Based on the molecules dipole moment, the m-ZnO NPs energy alignment has been tuning to ohmic contact, which assist charges tunneling to the electrode. The controllable surface dipole can achieve better charges equilibrium further enhance the Fill Factor and Current density.

Since m-ZnO NP is a well-protected layer for preventing perovskite from contacting the high-humidity environment, the stability of the devices is greatly improved. These hybrid materials present outstanding properties such as large light absorption coefficient, high dielectric constant and large mobilities. Besides, the low-cost and easily scalable fabrication technique makes them perfect candidates to substitute or complement silicon solar cells.

However, this technology is not in the market yet due to durability and stability issues. Currently, the scientific community is devoted to solve these problems researching on the new materials, combining several cations and halides, as well as new layer structures [2].

In this work, devices based on CsFAPbIBr with different active layer thicknesses nm, nm and nm have been fabricated and characterized. The temporal evolution of the efficiency under AM1. T80 is 2. The burn-in process has been characterized using impedance spectroscopy. We report new HTMs based on conjugated cyclopentadithiophene core units equipped with triarylamine moieties.

Due to the rough interface and thin layer the contribution of diffusion to charge transport is increased. This effect leads to more dispersive transport with modified field and temperature dependence. Akin, M. Bauer, R. Uchida, N. Arora, G. Jacopin, Y.

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