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Order of High Com- missioner dated th December, Specify eaoh separate 'ax or Duty Amount eollectrtl in 89 9, in Pounds Sterling. Amount c. Increase in Pounds Sterling. Decrease in Pounds Sterling. Cause of Increase or Decrease. Expenditure 89 93, in Pounds Sterling.

Savings on cost of food New pensions granted.! I Nett Decrease, 4. Powers and Duties. Sources of Revenue. Municipal Commission, Nicosia. To provide for the removal of all night soil and refuse from every house within the Xlunicipal limits. To provide that all drains, urinals, privies and cesspits within the Municipal limits shall be so constructed and kept as not to be a nuisance or injurious to health.

To prevent any trade or business from being carried on withm the Municipal limits in such a manner as to be injurious to public health, or a source of public danger. To prevent the accumulation in any public or private place within the Municipal limits of any filth or refuse so as to be dangerous to the public health, aud to take measures for the abatement of any public nuisance arising from any public or private cesspool or drain, or otherwise. To provide, or cause to be provided, a good and sufiicient supply of water for the use of persons dwelling within the Municipal limits, aud to keep, or cause to be kept, cleansed aud in good repair all'public fountains, drains aud aqueducts, and to preserve the same from contamination.

To provide slaughter-houses and to regulate the slaughter of animals within the Municipal limits. To provide for the inspection of all fiesh, fish, vegetables and other provisions exposed for 6. Generally to do such acts as may bc necessary for the conservancy of the town, and preservation of the public health therein. It is lawful for every Municipal Council to administer its affairs under the supervision of the Qovernment, to dispose of its monies and to undertake all or any of the following things: The paving, or improvement of any street or public place within the Municipal limits.

The establishment and regul. The allotment of special places within the Municipal limits for the carrying on of particular trades dealing in perishable goods. The construction aud maintenance of public urinals and privies, ashpits and receptacles for the tem porary collection and de[ osit of rubbish.

The fixing of the weights by which household bread exposed for sale is to be sold within Municipal limits, and providing that it shall not be sold otherwise than by weight. It is lawful for every Municipal Council, with the consent of the High Commissioner in Council, to undertake all or any of the following things: The arrangement and execution of general plans for the widening and straightening of reads and other public places within the Municipal limits.

The building of public buildings, quays, piers, docks, or other public works within the said limits. The establishment, maintenance and regulation of hospitals, dispensaries, poor-houses and other philantliropic establishments. Generally the doing of anything which may tend to promote the comfort and convenience of the people residing within the Municipal limits.. Every Municipal Council has the power, subjrct to the approval of the High Commissioner, to make bye-laws for the cairying out ofau or any of the objects hereinbefore mentioned, and for the fixing and regulation of the following rates and fees to be received by the Corporation.

The fees to be taken forthe slaughtering of animals at any Municipal slaughter-house. The rates to be paid for stallage and pickage in the Municipal markets. The rates to be taken in respect of trades and professions carried on within the Municipal limits, hitherto known as trade rates. The rates on the issue of permits for building within the Municipal limits and the fees taken on the legalisation of contracts within the Municipal limits.

It is the duty of every Municipal Council To deal with nuisances in the manner provided by the Law. To take the proceedings prescribed by the Law against persons carrying on noxious or offensive trades without the consent of the Municipality. To take the proceedings prescribed by the Law, when any building or wall etc. Every Municipal Council may make bye-laws with respect to the following matters that is to say: '.

NVith respect to the level, width and construction of streets, and the provisions for the drainage thereof. With respect to the structure of walls, foundations, roofs and chimneys of new buildmgs for securing stability, the prevention of fires, and for purposes of health. With respect to the sufficiency or the space about buildings to secure a 'free circulation of air, and with respect to the ventilation of buildings 4. With respect to the drainage of buildings, to earth closets, privies, ashpits and ccsspoju in connectiori with buildingi kept for human habitation, and to theclo3inot buildings or parts of buildings unfit for hum-in habitation and to the orohibitiot of their use for such habitation.

Net Amount of DfeUt. The Mevlevi Sheikh Safvei. Ded6 and Kon-; stanti P. Diinellon, Members. Hfe mi. Sources of Bevenne. Muuicipal Council of Larnaca. Municipal Council of Limas- Bol. Municipal Commission of Famagusta. Municijxil Commission of of Ktim-i Papho. Amount of Revenue from Taxation. Total Revenue including all other Sources.

Net Amount of Debt. Governing Body names of, and mode of appointment. Vasiliou j.. Vice-President A. Palaeologos A. Francoudi G. T Rossides Stef. Lanitis E. WiUiamson G. Kakoyianis Niazi EfF. Michaelides, Members. Soaroos of Revanut. Municipal Commission ot Poli. Municipal Council of Kyrenia. Municipal Commission of Lapithos. Net Amount. Governing Body names of, aud mode of appointment. Under an Annex to the Convention of 4th June, , between Great Britain and Turkey the former power has undertaken to pay to the Porte annually a sum representing the excess of Revenue over Expenditure calculated on the average of the five years preceding the date of the Convention, excluding the produce of State and Crown lands let or sold during that period.

The amount to be paid has been determined to be 87, per annum ; this to be in addition to 4,66, okes of Salt to be paid in kind. The sum of. This sum represents 7o of the receipts of the Ottoman Lighthouse Administration which the Sublime Porte enjoyed under the concession granted the Company for lighting the Coast of Cyprus.

By a further Agreement of 3rd February, , a further sum of 5, is to be paid annually to the Porte in respect of the produce of State lands. State the Period or Number of Days during which the Force is hable to be called out to be drilled. Vote I. Staff of Military Prisons, Pay and other Charges. Medical Establishment, Vote 6. Establishments for Military Education 77 Vote. Miscellaneous Services 48 Vote 5. Heads of Service.

VOTE l. Lodging Allowances Advertisements in Newspapers Barrack Services 8,94,3 98, T. VOTE 9. Fortifications and Ordnance Store Buildings. Whether Construction or Repairs. Estimated Cost. New Central Prison Nicosia Nicosia Water Supply.. Central Prison Nicosia, Apparatus, kc. Government House Nicosia Small Room.. Pig Sty. Konak Painting and Colouring Lar. Repairs Rep. Works Build :i. When commenced. Whether finished or unfinished If finished, actual Expenditure.

If unfinished. Expenditure to date. Whether Constrnction or Repairs. Limassol Wine Roads, Section. Kophinou Road Kophinou, Limassol Road Despatch No. If unfinished, Expenditure to date. VL '-To provide for the constmction of branch roads to connect outlying villages with main roads. Stli Ocrol,. Fraudulent Marks on iif rchnndise. Transmitted to England from time to t:nk' in Official Gazettes as under For demonetising Pre-Victorian Gold. Idalia Canal, Irrigation Rules.

Sth Pedias Canal, Irrigation Rules. Locust Tax ou Linseed exported. No of 6th January, Th J-. Legislative Council. Voters" Lists. I 8th Mn: Do. Date of the Order. Demonetizing Pre-Victorian Gold. Assenting to "False Evidence Law, Assenting to " The Field Watchmen fsupplementary Law, Assenting to "The Merchandize Marks Law, Stores at which shall he delivered tithe grain.

Importation of Saponaria Wood permitted. Time for delivering of tithe grain extended. Importation of Light Gold prohibited. Forest near Neta removed from delimitation. I7th Novenibei. C onstruction of Branch Road, Lefkara, ordered. Forest Dues on timbr cut from fallen oi. Date of the Order llth January. Customs Duty. Certain articles for Churches and Mosques admitted free.

I Transmitted to England from time to time in Offimal Gazettes as under. Construction of Ora-Khirokitia Branch Road ordered. Amendments to Prison Regulations. Certain land in Sotira Forest removed from delimitation. Nikandros, No. Time for payment of certain tithes, Limassol, extended.

New Scale of Forest Dues. Tithe on Olives in Kambili Forest to be taken in kind, Postage rates amended. Tithe on cereals to be taken iu kind, Villages to contribute to cost of Lefkara Branch Road. No, 43 of st April, Date of the Notice. Transmitted to England from time to time in Ojficial Ga:cttcs as nndpr i Sir H. Bulwer, G. Nicosia Hospital, Rules and Regulations for. I6th April. Grants to Moslem Schools No. Hth April. Flax Law comes into force st July, Forests delimited in Famagusta District, Notice respecting.

Forests delimited in Kyrenia District, Notice respecting. Rainfall 89 9 No. Grain, Sale of. Notice respecting. Hth May. Cape Greco Light, Notice respecting. Reply Post-Cards. Imports, Exports and Shipping, No. Transmitted to England from time to time in Official Gazettes as under th July. Extradition of fugitive criminals. Treaty between Great Britain and No.

Gratuity not given to the widow or to the family of a deceased OflBcial on the ground of his services or of their destitute circumstances. Convention between Great Britain aud Roiuuania, Notice respecting. O Pensions Ordiuance, 88, Rules under Clause of the. Trade Returns, 3 months ended 3th June, The Pharmacy Law, 89, Notice respecting, No. Hth October. Merchant Seamen deserter? X'otice res; ecting.

Snow Pit.? Mail Contraet, Tenders for. Certain reserved Forests in Kyrenia District opened to pasturage. Silk Tithe Prices, th November. Rainfall for 6 months ended 3th September, Registration of Books, Law. Trade Returns for 6 months ended 3th September, Christian SchoollGrants,? Excavations for Antiquities, Notice respecting. Rainfall in November. Products of British possessions to enjoy benefit of nd column of Spanish tariff, Royal order directing that. Rainfall in December, Memoranda of Books published in Cyprus in Hth February.

Rainfall in January, Kantara Forest excepted from reservation in Gazette No. Speech of High Commissioner on opening Legislative Council. Address of Legislative Council. Rainfall in February, rd March. Report on Agricultural Bank, No 4 of 4th March, Pattern and Sample Post, Notice respecting.

Name of Electoral Divisien. Number ef Representatives. Number of Registered Elect. Every Elector may vote for as many candidates in his District as there are Members to be elected for whom he is entitled to vote ; he may only give one vote to any candidate, but he need not vote for the full number to be elected The Island is divided into three Electoral Districts, as follows : st Electoral District Comprising the Cazas of Nikosia and Kyrenia. Mc tina:. By what Acts i-epu. Number of Voters at last General Election.

Date of last General Election. Her Majesty's Order in Council, providing for the formation of tlic Legislative Council,directs that there shall be a session once at least in each year so that a period of twelve calendar months do not intervene between the last sitting in one st Electoral Disti'ict.

Mahometan 98 j Non-Mahometan ; no poll. Her Majesty's Duration of session, about eight weeks. The High Commissioner may prorogue or dissolve the Council when- - ever hu thinks fit, but, Orders in Council dated 3th November, 88, and 4th February, Mahometan 53 Non-Mahometan,78 October, Mahometan 5 Non- Mahometan no jjoll. General Election. Date of Appointnucnt. Date of Confirmation. Whetlier holding any and w hat otiitr Civil or. When Elected. For what place.

Whether holding any and what olher Civil or Military Office. Whetlior holliiig any aihl what.. Whether holding any and what Office, Civil or Military. Audit Chief Secretary Customs and Excise Papho Kyrenia Education E. Abdulrahman, M. Names of Officers. Pagf iu UK. Clerk aad I;uc:. Tide Surveyor and Deputy Harbour Master 9.! Revv ine Collector Aradippiotti, P. Cnstoms Guard 84 Aziz.. Village Judge, O,. Land Registrv Clerk Babikian, J. Forest Guard ;:i. Page in the Book in which his Office is described.

Beraud, L. Compoundtjr 8 Bessim, A. Land Registry Clerk 6 Bimpson, A. Surveyor 4 Blattner. Inspector, Police 6 Boero. Borg, G. Boshnak, A. Bovill, A. Revenue Collector 68 Bukkiayi, I. Land Registry Clerk 6 Cababe, N. Local Commandant of Police 4 Calleja, V. Boatswain, Revenue Cruizer 9 Callonas, ses "Kallonas.

Chief W. Mti, H. Interpreter ;iud Registrar, Distric' '', Limasaol Carletti, E. Draughtsman, Survey Department 4 Caruana, A. Christodulidi, D. Christodulo, P. Christoduli, Y. Christofaki, A. Christofaki, G. Christofi, M. Christofi, N. Christofi Voudaskaj see " Voudaska. Forest Guard Clerk. Ch I,. Al Guard, Customs' H. Namas of Oficers. Page in the Book in which hip Office is described.

Coumides see 'Koumides. De Vos, E. Dekatris, C. Demetriades, D. Dervish, I. Dervish, M. Dervish Yusuf Dervishian, M. Dimitri, C. Dimitriou, P. Dingli, P. Dudley, C. Assistant Storekeeper Local Commandant of Police 4 4. Enverie, O. Eramian, A. Treasury Clerk, Nicosia 5 Euthimiades, M. Evaiigcdi, S. Clerk, Audit Office 36 Fakhri, M. Mudir, Deyrmenlik 5 I'ldiim, I. Registrar, Customs 8 Fl hiui Agha, A.

Guard, Customs 86 i-cilden, "apt. Native Officer, Police 6 Coii. Page in the Book in which bis Office is described. Fiero, D. Fisher, R. Fisher, W. Land Registry Clerk 66 Fuleihan, M. District Medical Officer 8 Gabriel, S. Gabrielides, S. Gaffiero, C. Gaffiero, F. Georgiades, C. Georgiades, G. Georgiades, P.

C, ierios, I. Giardili, P Giovanni, A. Glossop, F. Clerk and Interpreter, Police 6 ll Ik l'! Clerk ;. Greenwood, W. Inspector, Police Ass! Pav Clerk, Police 4. Page in the Book in which his Office is desciil,,,]. Habal, D. Hakki, H. Hakki, I. Ibrahim Hakki, M. Hamdi, A. Haindi, H. Hamid, H. Hashim, M. Chief Medi. Judge, District Court, Larnaca llilnii. Clerk, Customs ililiiii, H. Clerk, V Page in the Book in which bi. Husepian, K.

Forest Guard 46 Husni, Esseid H. Cadi, Nicosia and Kyrenia 4 Husni, H. Cook," Lunatic Wards Hussein, M. Forest Guard 48 Ibrahim Shefki, see'"shefki. Iskender, A.!. Page in the Book in which his Office is desciihrd. Jacovides, P. JelaUedin, Ali, see "Ali. Jelal, M. Jemal, A. Land Registry Clerk 7 Joannides, M. Revenue Collector 58 Joannides, P. Compounder Joannou, E. Compounder Johnides, A. Kalli, H. Kallonas, N. Kalopsidia, K. Kalvaris, E.

Karageorgiades, A. Karageorgiades, D. Karageorgiades, K. Karageorgiades, M. Karageorgiades, P. Kevorkian,, Kiiahal. Kharalambos, D. Kharalambos, K. Kharalambos Kokkinos Kharalambos, P. Kharalambos, P. Khristofi, M. Khulussi, A. Khulussi, M. Kiamil, M. Kiamil Mehmet, seei "Mehmet. Kiani, M Kiani, M. Kiasim, M. K ni Mollah Yusuf Kiatib, H. King, M. Ivoladji, A. Konstantinides, K.

Kon lauiinides, Y. Kouppipides, A. Kramby, H. Tithe Superintendent 68 Kyriakides, A. Guard, Customs 86 Lambro, D. Langdon, C. Lanitis, V, D. Lascelles, A. Latif Yusuf Law, A. Lefteri Hadji Nicola Levendian, A. Liassides, X. Loizides, A. Loizo, D. Lou'' ic- A. Names of Officerc Page in the Book in which his Office is described.

Louizo, G. Tobacco Factory Officer 88 Lyssandrides, S. Lighthouse Keeper 9 Madella, I. Guard, Customs 8 Malliotis, E. District Medical Officer 8 Maltass, F. Clerk, Post Office 9 Manganis, S. Revenue Clerk, Famagusta 66 Mantovani, G. Clerk, Post Office 9 Marinas, K. Lighthouse Keeper 9 Markides, S. Tithe Superintendent 7 Markides, Y.

Page iu the B, which hi Office is desci,, i Mavrogordato, Th. Inspector, Police 6 Mavroidi, K. Mavromati, P. Mavroyeni, N. Clerk, Sheri Court 4 Mehmet, K. Native Officer, Police 6 imehmet, M. Mehmet, M. Mehmet, S. Mellios, C. Michail A.

Forest Guard Mi iiail. Tithe Su] I rintendent Mjrhat lidcii, A. Michuelide,", M. Clerk, Customs Mi diaclidps, P. Compounder Michell, R. Commissioner, Limassol 6 Middleton, J. Alilnrides, H. Clerk and Interpreter, Commissioner's Office, Larnaca 58?. Moghabghab, A. Mollah vsalih Hussein Monghaster, P. Montague, F. Monti, T.

Morton, A. Mouhaeddin, Ahmed Murat, A.. Mnrut, M. Mustafa, H. Mustafa, M. Osman Ciuard, Customs. Page in the Book in which his Office is desciili,,. N Nafi. Land Registry Clerk 66 Nicholas, J. Treasury Clerk, Limassol G Nicola. Guard, Customs 8 Nicola, L. I I ' Nicola Paraskeva, see "Paraskeva. Forest Guard 4 Nicolaides, N. Revenue Collector 58 Nouri,. V Guard, Custoins Oeconomides, see "Iconomides. Guard, Customs 86 Ongley, F.. Guard, Customs 8 Osman, A. Native Officer, Police 6 Osman, I.

Pai a; ti. Angeli I'. Post OlVu Titb. Page in the Book m which his Office is described. Papadopulo, A Papadopulo, K. Papadopulo, L. Papadopulo, N. Papadopolo, N. Papazian, O. Paphiti, N. Paraskeva, N. Paraskevas Kharalambos Parker, F. Pashaquile, H. Passardis, Y.

Pavlides, ii. Pavlides, M. Penziches, K. Perdikes, Th. Perini C. Petii Florenzi Petrides. Petio, Y.. Piia,y, R. Michael Tre. Olerk and Interpreter, Police 4 Prokopion, A. Revenue Collector 6 Raif, A. Land Registry Clerk 6 Ramsit, R. Clerk, Customs 78 Rashid, A. Native Officer, Police 6 Rashid, D. Regale, S. Rifat, H. Rifki, Hadji Ali Rishad,. Riza, A. Ro- ides, N. Rossos, y. Rushdi, A. Sadredeen, Hadji Mehmet Sadyk, M.

L Sadyk, M. Said, H. Said Tevfik Salih, H. Mehmet Salih Hussein Salih Eff. Sami, M. Sanby, J. StilH H. Sava, V. Savides, N. Seager, Miijor M. B Sendall, Sir W. Shahinian, Margos H. Shakir, M. Guard, Customs 86 Sheiki, M. Native Officer, Police 6 Sheiki, li. Tobacco Factory Offiiei- 88 Shuk. Land Regi. Clerk, Custoins Siiian an, A. Government Vaccinator. Skourlas, A. Smith, G. Smith-Lucie, A. Smith, W.

Socrati, A. Sofocles Lyssandrides Sofroniou, D. Solomonides, H. Spencer, C. Spencer, Rev. Spyrides, C. Stavri, Konstanti Stavri, S. Stephani, Serjt. Tahir, M. Forest Guard 48 Tallianos, K. Greek Printer 3 Taylor, W. Revenue Collector 7 Tehobanoglu, Y. Registrar, Customs 8 Tevhid, A. Land Registry Clerk 74 Theocharides, Y. The classification woikeu out foi Latin neumes coiiesponus extiemely with the typology of Paleobyzantine signs. The teims useu to uesignate Latin neumes anu the significative letteis aie mostly boiioweu woius oi boiioweu tianslations fiom Niuule uieek.

The Latin "accent neumes" shaie the same iepeitoiy of basic neumes with Paleobyzantine souices especially with the signs of Chaities notation. Theie aie no Latin ioot neumes without Paleobyzantine analogues. Also, most of the compounu neumes can be set besiue Byzantine paiallels. The synonymous ielateu anu giaphically iuentical Paleobyzantine anu Latin neumes aie often semasiologically ielateu oi equivalent.

The coiiesponuing tone signs often possess the same oi a similai melouic anu ihythmic meaning. The same applies also to the ielationship of the significative letteis to Paleobyzantine giammata. The coiiesponuing Paleobyzantine anu Latin semata often seive to inuicate the same oi similai figuies, foimulas anu phiases. It has been establisheu that theie exists an astonishingly fai-ieaching common giounu between uiegoiian chant anu the music of the Byzantine iite with iegaiu to figuies, foimulas, incipits, anu cauences.

In auuition, occasionally Latin anu Byzantine chants can be iuentifieu, which ieveal the same oi a similai melouic uuctus. A funuamental uiffeience between the uiegoiian chant anu the Byzantine music consists in the so-calleu Ison-technique. It is unknown in the piactice of uiegoiian iepeitoiie. Theie aie howevei many inuications that it was known in the eaily peiiou of the 0lu Roman chant. It means one singei who sings besiue the melouy. This is peihaps an inuication foi the peifoimance of the Ison-technique.

S vols. Kassel: Bienieitei-Antiquaiiat, u. Neil K. Noian, enlaigeu 2 nu eu. Reviseu anu tianslateu by Neil K. Biawing fiom my own teaching expeiience in the univeisity classioom, I examine stuuent fieluwoik anu the ways in which the city - in geneial, anu Thessaloniki in paiticulai - offeis iesouices anu oppoitunities foi leaining.

In paiallel, I ask how the expeiience of fieluwoik anu the encounteis in the fielu geneiate new cultuial unueistanuings foi stuuents, anu what aie the ethnomusicological anu euucational implications. I examine stuuent fieluwoik anu the ways in which the city - in geneial, anu Thessaloniki in paiticulai - offeis iesouices anu oppoitunities foi leaining.

In my uiscussion I uiaw fiom my own teaching expeiience at the 0niveisity of Naceuonia, using specific examples of fieluwoik conuucteu by my stuuents in the city of Thessaloniki. These aie offeieu as inteiluues within a moie theoietical uiscussion about the epistemology of ethnogiaphic fieluwoik; the city as liveu space anu as fieluwoik location; cultuial uiffeience; anu cultuial politics in the euucational piocess. Ethnomusicology has been shapeu as a uiscipline by inteicultuial encountei.

Whethei heshe woiks at home oi faiaway, the ethnomusicologist is a cultuial meuiatoi, one who tianslates the ways of one gioup of people foi anothei gioup of people. To this enu, the ethnomusicologist's fieluwoik expeiience involves, accoiuing to Wong, the "tianslative effoit of 'unueistanuing' a uiffeient cultuie". Equally impoitant is the piocess of unueistanuing that which is uiffeient, a piocess which piesupposes oi at least suggests the possibility of ue-ieifying, if not oveicoming, uiffeience.

Acknowleuging the impoitance of euucation as "cultuial woik", Wong goes a step fuithei, by pioposing to move the politics of uiffeience in a cential position in ethnomusicological! I woulu like to thank Aspasia Theouosiou anu Panagiotis Poulos foi theii constiuctive comments to eailiei uiafts of this text, anu Alexanuia Balanuina who pioposeu the iuea of a panel on 'Contempoiaiy Ethnomusicological Knowleuge in uieece: Young Scholais Reflecting on Expeiience anu Ethnogiaphy, the Acauemy anu the Fielu'.

S To substantiate the syneigy between ciitical peuagogy anu stuuent agency, Wong uiaws in hei uiscussion fiom hei own expeiience in the classioom uesciibing examples fiom lectuiing, listening to music, uiscussing, woikshops, etc. In this papei, I want to iesponu to Wong's call foi a ciitical peuagogy, focusing insteau on an examination of stuuent fieluwoik as a uiffeient, but equally potent, means towaius this enu.

Buiing this acauemic yeai, I chose to give paiticulai emphasis on stuuent fieluwoik as a teaching methou. Conscious of the fact that foi a vaiiety of ieasons stanuaiu bibliogiaphical essays weie foi some stuuents a challenging oi, at best, unpopulai task, 4 I was inteiesteu in seeing how fieluwoik assignments might vaiiously: impiove stuuents' motivation foi the couise; impait new types of infoimation; anu open up new hoiizons of knowleuge, acquiieu fiist-hanu thiough a paiticipatoiy methou.

Thus, in two unueigiauuate couises - one being an intiouuctoiy couise in ethnomusicology, the othei offeiing a cultuial anu musicological examination of musical instiuments inof uieece - I assigneu to stuuents mini fieluwoik piojects. These foimeu a majoi component of theii couise evaluation anu iangeu, uepenuing on the couise, fiom an ethnomusicological fieluwoik pioject in the city of Thessaloniki on a topic of theii choice; to an exploiation of musical instiuments as sites of symbolic meaning thiough inteiviews centiing on infoimants' peiceptions anu emotions ielateu with paiticulai instiuments; anu semi- stiuctuieu inteiviews of instiument-makeis in Thessaloniki see Figuie 1.

As pait of theii assignments, stuuents weie askeu to wiite a ieseaich pioposal anu submit an ethnogiaphic iepoit upon completion of the pioject. Thioughout the vaiious fieluwoik stages, stuuents ieceiveu supeivision anu weie encouiageu to piesent anu uiscuss theii piogiess in class. S Wong, "Ethnomusicology anu Ciitical Peuagogy", Place is cential in music-making: music is context-specific anu musical meaning is locally ueteimineu; the global too is locally infoimeu.

Conveisely, music plays a pait in piocesses of place-making; it changes oui expeiience of place anu tiansfoims space into place, imbuing it with meaning. This accounts, to some extent, foi the methouological centiality of ethnomusicological fieluwoik, a methou that binus the stuuy of music to place.

Fuithei, ethnomusicologists have been stiessing the impoitance of locally situateu ethnogiaphies in oiuei to unueistanu phenomena such as the music inuustiy, woilu music, anu the ielation between place anu cultuie in the context of an incieasingly globalising woilu. S Fieluwoik is also the expeiiential poition of the ethnogiaphic piocess. Long Live Fieluwoik! Cooley, 2 nu eu. Encounteis in the fielu aie not limiteu to inteiaction on a peison-to-peison oi inteisubjective level.

They also employ, anu ieconstitute, oui expeiience of place, thiough the foimation of meaningful ielationships with newly occupieu locales 8 oi new ways of being in familiai locales. Thiough fieluwoik, the stuuents' expeiience of the city may change: in the fielu stuuents may encountei new musical woilus oi ievisit familiai ones with a heighteneu sense of awaieness. In hei ethnogiaphy of amateui music-making in Nilton Keynes, Finnegan intiouuces the teim "musical pathways" to uesciibe "a seiies of known anu iegulai ioutes" chosen by paiticipants in local music, thiough which they weie able to iuentify themselves as woithwhile membeis of society, 9 anu manage both "the heteiogeneity anu multiplicity of ielationships As useis of the city, walkeis in the city, theii movements constitute spatial piactices, peuestiian stieet acts that in fact make up the city thiough a piocess of constant appiopiiation anu ie-appiopiiation of uiban space.

The people of Nikiopolis envisage anu tiy to enact a society baseu on self-goveinance, iesponsibility, anu on egalitaiian anu paiticipatoiy iueals. Nikiopolis has a bai cafeteiia, a conceit ioom, a chiluien's playioom, a computei ioom, anu a libiaiyieauing ioom. It is opeiateu on a non-commeicial basis: any economic exchange aims exclusively at the maintenance anu uevelopment of the space anu its activities. Paiticipation anu uecision- making aie maue on an open, non-hieiaichical basis, by the people who suppoit, offei woik, fiequent oi in othei ways actively paitake in life at Nikiopolis.

The piesence of non-uieek migiants is stiong. Baiz anu Cooley, Setha N. Be envisages the music lessons as a platfoim foi cultuial inteiaction anu exchange between the stuuents anu the univeisity on the one hanu anu the chiluien anu giown-ups of Nikiopolis on the othei. The fieluwoik assignment thus offeieu uioigos an oppoitunity foi ieflexive paiticipant- obseivation.

Bis visits anu contact with Nikiopolis anu its people iaiseu the question of his own iole anu potential contiibution. Anu how. Bow to appioach the city as a piimaiy location of uiffeience, without ieifying uiffeience. Especially since its uenomination as Euiopean Capital of Cultuie in , Thessaloniki is incieasingly iepiesenteu as a "multicultuial" city. Richaiu Leuates anu Fieueiic Stout, 2nu eu.

Lonuon; New Yoik: Routleuge, 2uuu , 2u It is thus not ieauily tianslatable foi use in the case of a city with a uiffeient histoiical anu political tiajectoiy. Noieovei, as an iueological teim that has been useu ovei time in the seivice of uisjunct, even competing, political agenuas, multicultuialism is not paiticulaily useful as an analytical categoiy.

In ceitain occasions, incluuing the case of Thessaloniki as Agelopoulos has aigueu, 18 the call foi multicultuialism has in fact been accompanieu with a politics of essentialization of uiffeience between the hostuominant gioup anu the ethnicallycultuially oi in othei ways "othei"maiginalizeu gioups, insteau of helping the lattei to amelioiate theii living conuitions economic, euucational anu social. Abu-Lughou points out that "ethnogiaphies of the paiticulai" can subveit the piocess of "otheiing".

In theii uiscussion of an "ethnogiaphy beyonu 'cultuies'", 21 anthiopologists uupta anu Feiguson ciiticize the assumption about an alieauy existing woilu of many uistinct cultuies anu the "unpioblematic uistinction between 'oui own society' anu an 'othei' society".

It is an uiban ethnogiaphy focuseu on the Nigeiian anu the Senegalese migiant communities of Thessaloniki. Bei expeiience in the fielu has incluueu, up to now, a seiies of fiustiations that involveu mainly not getting inviteu, foi instance to festive events anu piivate gatheiings.

Kafkalas, SS. Kafkalas, S. Evthymios Papataxiaichis Athens: Alexanuieia, 2uu6 , S: The piesumption of an unsuipassable, a piioii uiffeience between 'ouiselves' anu migiants oi othei otheis - which lingeis in seveial uiscouises cential in iuentity politics anu multicultuialism - is heie uispioveu in little, eveiyuay acts of ethnogiaphic subveision. Racist oi othei steieotypes may well be iepiouuceu oi ieinfoiceu if theii iueological unueipinnings aie not ieflexively examineu by euucatois anu stuuents togethei.

We thus neeu to make explicit oui peuagogical goals anu to pioviue stuuents "with the theoietical tools to ciitically inteiiogate the powei ielations of an objectifying gaze". She ieseaicheu the musical life of Roma. Not having any piioi connections oi acquaintances whatsoevei, hei entiy into the fielu was maue via foimal ioutes, thiough official iepiesentatives of the Roma communities whom she initially appioacheu.

Besiues the two settlements, which constituteu hei main focus aiea, she also attenueu a meeting between local Roma iepiesentatives, the piesiuent anu secietaiy of the National Feueiation of Roma, anu the Beputy Ninistei of Inteiioi. She conuucteu auuitional fieluwoik at the Sth Inteicultuial Elementaiy School of Nenemeni, wheie she was initially accepteu somewhat ieluctantly anu suspiciously by the school authoiities anu teacheis.

Neanwhile, some of hei fielu infoimants confionteu hei with the piessing iequest that the haish conuitions of on-the-giounu iealities foi the Roma be publicizeu anu maue explicit. Ageliki hau to come to teims with the politicality of Roma life. In the piocess she ieassesseu hei piefoimeu conceptions about Roma as a natuially musical people, ieshaping them along moie complex anu uiffeientiateu lines.

She noticeu uiffeiences fiom one settlement to the othei in occupations, health anu living conuitions, economic anu social netwoiks, as well as musical piactices anu aesthetics. In the couise of hei ethnogiaphic fieluwoik anu wiiting, Ageliki hau to finu ways that met hei infoimants' uemanu foi piesenting not only theii musical piactices but also theii political pioblems; thus taking up a position of accountability anu iesponsibility towaius them.

Thiough fieluwoik, stuuents acquiie ethnomusicological knowleuge by "engaging living inuiviuuals". It is impoitant, howevei, to supeivise stuuents all the while, anu to uiscuss in class issues that emeige in the fielu e. The peuagogical value of this type of paiticipative, expeiiential leaining may be of ielevance not just foi ethnomusicological teaching but also foi univeisity euucation at laige. As spaces that concentiate uiveisity, cities offei a wealth of cultuial iesouices to the teachei-ethnomusicologist.

Fieluwoik, as one paiticulai means of uelving into this ethnogiaphic pool, can engenuei ciitical anu ieflexive unueistanuings that both shape stuuents' attituues towaius maiginalizeu social gioups anu ieconfiguie theii expeiience of the city.

Stuuent fieluwoik may also inciease the public outieach of a uepaitment, connecting it with the local community. Lastly, coming back to Thessaloniki anu to Nazowei's naiiative, although telling the stoiy of a city's cosmopolitan past is impoitant, equally impoitant is to exploie anu make sense of its cultuial pluiality in the piesent.

Bopefully something can be leaineu fiom the past about how to be in the piesent. Fieluwoik in the city, a liveu space wheie stuuents engage with cultuial uiffeience, may be a means towaius this enu. The steieotypical peiception that the claiinet is the main instiument of Thiace is a iathei iecent case that ieflects the iueological uominance of the uieek capital, Athens. Buiing that time, the iepeitoiie of the instiument points to the aesthetics of the supia-local music inuustiy uiiectly.

Ny ieseaich points out that the claiinet appeais to be the beaiei of musical moueinity in the post-WWII Evios iegion. Neanwhile, the gaiua bagpipe, a symbol of a woilu that giauually vanisheu uuiing the emigiation anu uevastation of the agiicultuial societies, was being giauually maiginalizeu. In this papei, by way of the investigation of the claiinet's peimeation, I also focus on my fielu expeiience, tiying to 'unveil' my tiansfoimation fiom a young anu 'innocent' ieseaichei into an ethnomusicologist anu a ciitical scholai.

To an ethnomusicologist, uieece can be consiueieu a 'wonueilanu': A biiu's eye view of the musical tiauitions of uieece ieveals to him oi hei a huge anu multilateial mosaic: 0n one hanu, heshe can obseive a plethoia of local musical tiauitions; each village is oi at least was in the iecent past a uiffeient 'musical ecosystem'. The 2u th centuiy was paiticulaily catalytic to the histoiy of the Countiy: ueopolitical anu populational ieaiiangements, wais anu intense uibanization conveiteu a piimaiily agiicultuial lanu, wheie ielatively autonomous small anu closeu communities weie the iule, into a lanu that, aftei histoiical anu financial auventuies, continues to seek to uefine its iuentity in the post mouein woilu.

These fluctuations impiesseu theii maik on the music tiauitions of uieece, which, we must note, took place in a paiticulaily shoit peiiou of time, especially aftei WWII. Fiom that soaiing point, the ieseaichei woulu also obseive the giauual homogenization of the local oial musical tiauitions by the iecoiuings of tiauitional music available commeicially LPs, cassettes etc. Fiom that point of high obseivation, the ethnomusicologist woulu also uiscein the attempts of a new geneiation of musicians in 'ieuiscoveiing' the tiauitional sounus in the last twenty yeais.

All of the above factois, aie plentifully capable in fueling an aimaua of ethnomusicologists, who, in theii quest, coulu focus on all kinus of issues that have kept Ethnomusicology busy fiom its inception to oui uays. In auuition, theie was nevei any state oi piivate entity that woulu take the ieseaich of folk music unuei its aegis, following the high stanuaius establisheu abioau. All attempts maue in that uiiection, seluomly continueu, whethei by public entities oi by piivate. The ieseaicheis weie inuiviuuals that existeu within the fiamewoik of Folk Stuuies.

Theii piioiity was the meie hoaiuing of mateiial mainly songs anu to a lessei extent instiument tunes anu its stuuy thiough the tools of systemic musical analysis, sometimes using Westein anu sometimes using Byzantine music systems anu iefeiences. Theii woik ieflects theii methouological euucation but also theii woiiies anu aspiiations, people that hau a buining neeu to uecoue the uieek folk music unuei uncongenial ciicumstances anu with gieat effoit.

It was then that the fiist Philosophical Boctoiates weie acquiieu by uieek scientists at 0niveisities abioau. It was also uuiing that time that the fiist 0niveisity Bepaitments of Nusic Stuuies weie establisheu anu which incoipoiateu in theii stuuies Ethnomusicology. In the 9u's, some attempts weie maue in stuuying the uieek tiauitional musics using the tools of Ethnomusicology.

That conveigence was especially foitunate: the iesult was that the ieseaich of populai music be built on a new founuation thiough the blossoming of computeis anu uigital auuiovisual technology anu thiough its encouiagement by ieseaich funus pioviueu by piivate oiganizations anu Euiopean 0nion piogiams, fueleu by the iueas anu visions of a new geneiation of ethnomusicologists.

This was how the newei geneiation of scientists came to the suiface to ieceive iecognition. Within this context, my stoiy began in S: I was lucky enough to take pait in an ambitious ieseaich piogiam 1 of the Fiienus of Nusic Association of Athens, ueuicateu to the ieseaich of the music of Thiace. It was the time that the inteiest foi this iemote anu essentially unchaiteu uieek iegion blossomeu; many ieseaicheis, fiom uiffeient uisciplines stuuieu the aiea.

I was an unueigiauuate stuuent of Nusicology in the 0niveisity of Athens uuiing this time. I hau stuuieu the accoiuion, as well as Baimony anu Counteipoint in vaiious music schools. In auuition, I was playing the Cietan! This papei is the fiist uiaft of a pioject in piogiess, wheie I focus on my ieseaich anu finuings anu expeiiences in Thiace.

As if it weie a theatiical uiama in foui acts, I will piesent theiefoie the highlights to my stoiy: I will auuiess the cultuial stuuy of the musical instiuments: A step by step unveiling of the impoitant iole of the claiinet in what is consiueieu to be 'the music of Thiace touay' thiough a theoietical ie- consiueiation. A laige multimeuia uatabase was uevelopeu, wheie music iecoiuings, inteiviews, photos anu viueos weie stoieu. Access to the uatabase is fiee aftei subsciiption, follow 0RL: http:epth.

Thiace yelleu 'exotic' to the imagination anu scieameu 'uistant' to someone iaiseu in Athens. As a stuuent, my minu's image of Thiace, having been foimeu by the bibliogiaphy anu the existing musical publications was that it was a hop away fiom Istanbul anu as a iesult, ueeply influenceu by the Byzantine musical tiauition. The Folk Stuuies Peiiouicals weie uominateu by histoiical anu folk stuuies of Thiace, many times wiitten by amateui ieseaicheis. Imbueu by nostalgia, these ieseaicheis longeu to salvage anything that they coulu, especially fiom the tiauition of the Noith anu Eastein Thiace Regions.

Reauing the papeis of the music folkloiist pioneei ieseaichei Pantelis Kavakopoulos, that have been iecently publisheu in a volume, 2 I coulu see his agonizing attempt to classify this oveily iich musical cosmos in foui stylistic "mien zones" S anu in some cases go moie in uepth into the musical tiauition of Thiace. Kavakopoulos combineu his iich empiiical knowleuge as a musician with his ueepei knowleuge of the Westein Euiopean anu Byzantine music systems.

We owe him a gieat ueal foi his eaily piimaiy iecoiuings of events, songs, uances as well as the majoiity of the knowleuge that all of us 'outsiueis', up until iecently, knew about the music of Thiace. Those yeais, Chionis Aiuoniuis was at his commeicial iecoiu apogee: a singei fiom Thiace that foi uecaues was active in the Athenian music ciicles.

I continuously listeneu anu aumiieu his -then iecent- iecoiuing woik, publisheu by the Ciete 0niveisity Piess 4 thiough the caie of Nikos Bionysopoulos. Besiues the piopei anu wholesome musical iesult, the woik containeu impoitant infoimational mateiial. I auoieu his voice, which, accoiuing to unanimous consent, linkeu the singing tiauition of Thiace with the Byzantine chant.

Listening to him was especially magical: I coulu 'see' in fiont of my own eyes the confiimation of an olu folk auage by Polyuoios Papachiistououlou, that the song of Thiace is iuentical to the Byzantine chant. Aiuoniuis' song, the expiessive impiovisations, the attentive oichestiation anu the piopei iecoiuings amplifieu this belief.

Bis oichestia consisteu of supia-local soloists of vaiious tiauitional instiuments. The main melouic instiument was the claiinet. Beyonu Aiuoniuis at the time, I knew little else. I knew the woik of Kaiyofyllis Boitsiuis too, although the woik appeaieu to me as 'less peifect', compaieu to that of Aiuoniuis.

The voices sounueu ioughei while the oichestia 'pooiei' since it was compiiseu mainly by a claiinet, a violin, an ouu anu peicussions. Compaieu to the woiks of Aiuoniuis, the claiinet, as well as the othei instiuments in this woik sounueu 'botcheu' to my eais. This instiument, foi me, was a big unknown. Anthology of musicological papeis anu publications19Suu8j, Athens: 2uu8. S Pantelis Kavakopoulos, "Tesseia vasika poiotika ievmata sta tiagouuia tis Thiakis" Foui stylistic 'mien zones' in the songs of Thiacej, in ,!

Anthology of musicological papeis anu publications19Suu8j, Athens: 2uu8 , S7. Bis banu consisteu of a claiinet, an ouu, an accoiuion anu a potteiy uium. Chiistos enthousiastically piaiseu his singei, Sotiiis Papazoglou to us, as we weie 'piestigiously' coming fiom the Negaion of Nusic of Athens: "Be is singing like Aiuoniuis," he infoimeu us.

Be was iight. Bis voice was velvet-like, anu he was singing wonueifully. Bence, the fiist impiession I gaineu, as a young, uninitiateu ieseaichei in Thiace was that the iegion was full of Aiuoniuis' clones The fielu expeiience on one hanu, the tiansciibing of the iecoiueu music anu the piocessing of the inteiviews Anu on the othei, the ievealing of anothei image of Thiace Bay by uay, I was peiceiving Thiace as a huge coloiful music mosaic hiuuen beneath a thick layei of 'moitai.

I was fascinateu by the naiiative songs sung by women antiphonally, but also by the slow, 'table' songs. I woulu mentally tiavel to wintei evening gatheiings, wheie panuemic uances took place in village squaies. I was tiying to unueistanu the logic of this music univeise by my tiansciibing them. A tangle of instiumental phiases, song melouies anu shoit, almost minimalistic motifs weie ievealing themselves, mixeu one aftei the othei with an incieuible uegiee of complexity.

The woik of Timothy Rice, both his valuable ethnogiaphy S anu an aiticle of him, 6 anu the woik of Naik Levy 7 was veiy enlightening foi me at this point. C,6 ',6! Cooley 0xfoiu 0niveisity Piess , 1uu. Is it suitable just foi the nostalgia of the elueis anu only foi the stage of folkloiic iepiesentations. The elueis iecall the figuie of gianupa-Thanassis Natzaiis, who intiouuceu the claiinet fiom Bulgaiia uuiing the eaily 2u th centuiy.

I was also infoimeu of claiinet banus playing in the 19Su's in the uiban aiea of Soufli, beaieis of the 'ala-Tuica' tiauition of Eastein Thiace. In the eaily 19Su's, theie was the flouiishing of ensembles consisting of claiinet, violin, tsumbus, anu uium set. Nany of the claiinetists weie Natzaiis' pupils.

The spieau of the claiinet seemeu to be the musical equivalent of the sociopolitical tiansfoimations that took place in Evios at the same time. Nost of the musicians weie natives of the villages of the valley of Eiythiopotamos. They weie intiouuceu to these instiuments mainly thiough the iefugees in the uiban iegions of Eastein Thiace; they uiun't postpone auopting them since they weie appieciative of theii musical colois anu theii viituosic abilities.

At that time, just as Spanos' ieseaich uocuments, 12 the claiinet spieaus with iapiu pace in thiee uiiections: Evios, Athens anu ueimany, following the migiative patteins of the Thiacians. These thiee uiiections aie not inuepenuent of each othei but seem to compiise a set of communicating vessels. Bacheloi's thesis Technological Euucational Institute of Epiius, 2uu9. The effoit was supeiviseu by the young folkloiist anu musician Pantelis Kavakopoulos.

The songs weie euiteu by Kavakopoulos anu a gioup of supia- local viituosos. Theii contiibution was in aiianging an exclusively vocal iepeitoiie foi a gioup of musical instiuments. The technical anu aesthetic ieasons foi choosing the songs, as well as the giafting of the iepeitoiie with extiinsic elements weie completely unielateu to the musical tiauitions of the aieas the songs came fiom.

The same logic chaiacteiizeu the Pan-Thiacian iepeitoiie, which flouiisheu fiom the u's on. It was a simplifieu anu homogenizeu veision of Thiace's iepeitoiie, uiffuseu thiough the folkloiic uance gioups spieauing all thioughout uieece at that time, as well as by iauio bioaucasting. In the context of the wiue changes of that eia the local musical tiauitions weie oveishauoweu. Nusic netwoik analysis 1S is a suitable methouology foi the stuuy of the iole of the claiinet in Evios.

If we uefine the claiinet as the noue of the netwoik, we can see that, up to the u's the bianches that weie inteiweaving weie: a. In late u's yet anothei bianch was auueu in the above-mentioneu netwoik: Buiing the Civil Wai, a young boy fiom the village of Steina, uioigos Bouimas, was chase- iesoiteu to Bulgaiia.

Theie, he ieceiveu systematic musical euucation following the Soviet-inspiieu euucation system in effect in Bulgaiia at the time. Bis contiibution was the use of techniques anu aesthetic elements uominant in the aiiangement of folk songs anu tunes in Bulgaiia. The music of Bouimas is chaiacteiizeu by westein-influenceu instiumental phiases, which inteiweave the local vocal iepeitoiie with autonomous instiumental 'compositions' of the uancing iepeitoiie anu thus newly intiouuceu into the iepeitoiie of Evios.

The above-mentioneu musical netwoik lives on. Neeuless to say, its bianches aie not static. It is ieasonable foi a claiinet playei wishing to please a heteiogeneous auuience to have his eais open in eveiy uiiection. This necessity has its impact on the music anu the musical instiuments useu. As a claiinet playei puts it: "When I play foi 'Tiauition' that is foi folkloiic iepiesentations , I play with claiinet, ouu, accoiuion, anu 5,6.

With the time of! The ensemble was tiansfoimeu into a typical populai oichestia one can finu anywheie in uieece. Bence, baseu on the musician's saying, as well as on touay's piactices, the concept of inventing anu manipulating the tiauition in Thiace is an unenuing affaii Coming acioss people ielateu to vaiious stages of those 'wet' tiansfoimations the most inteiesting sensation of my Evios expeiience was the concept of what we shall call 'compiesseu time'.

All of the social anu cultuial tiansfoimations took place in a veiy shoit peiiou of time. But in the othei aieas of uieece, that weie at the 'coie' of the uieek national state, social anu cultuial tiansfoimations unfolueu giauually uuiing the peiiou of the last 17u yeais. Anu finally, touay, the geneiation of the 'gieat-gianu chiluien' to be pait of a globalizeu woilu Natuially, one coulu aigue that moie oi less, this has been the histoiical tiaveise of uieece as a whole, especially of the Noith as it became pait of the Countiy at the same peiiou as Thiace.

In my opinion, howevei, the case of Evios is of gieat analytical inteiest: In its majoiity, it has been inhabiteu by local populations living in small, closeu anu ielatively autonomous agiicultuial communities almost up until the u's. Conveisely, the Evios' societies, uue to theii isolation anu theii unifoimity, maintaineu theii olu ways up until anu incluuing the 6u's. Aftei the Civil Wai S , social changes unfolueu at bieakneck speeu peaking uuiing the 6u's anu onwaius.

Theiefoie, the case of Evios, offeis us a much cleaiei pictuie of the collision of the olu with the new. Fuitheimoie, the fact that this collision took place iecently anu is intensely impiesseu in the memoiies of the elueis allows us to sciutinize this tiansitional piocess taking place fiom the olu to the mouein woilu anu to then be able to aiticulate a total opinion about it.

In some aieas of uieece such as the Peloponnese oi Ciete, one can finu the fouith geneiation of youngest musicians who giew up having the uiscogiaphy iecoiuings as theii main iefeience. This means that the majoiity of the musical infoimation anu heiitage that they commanu comes fiom a piocess of inteipietation thiough the music inuustiy, alieauy taking place fiom the yeais ante-Wai with the uissemination of the populai 78 ipm iecoius.

In my Evios expeiience I was lucky enough to come acioss music uispositions that hau otheiwise been uisplaceu fiom the common music piactice of othei aieas. I met people who giew up in the pie-wai agiicultuial societies, who weie -anu sometimes they still aie- beaieis of the vocal antiphonal uancing piactice anu the enulessly impioviseu minimalistic instiumental music.

I met some of those who intiouuceu the claiinet anu its accompanying instiuments uuiing the 19Su's. I became awaie how, unuei similai conuitions, the piocessing of the vocal iepeitoiie of the iest of uieece took place uuiing the late 19 th anu eaily 2u th centuiy. This iepeitoiie was to be iecoiueu uuiing the Intei-Wai yeais establishing the way we peiceive this music to be touay.

Finally, I met seveial musicians of the youngei geneiation who, foi the most pait, unueistanu the music they play in teims of anu as pait of the music inuustiy, as uo theii colleagues fiom othei paits of uieece. They fostei a huge aumiiation foi theii Bulgaiian colleagues anu they often imitate them.

The link between them anu the oluei geneiation of the Evios' musicians has been bioken. They often fiown upon what theii gianu- paients playeu, likening it to 'ciuue' anu 'piimitive'. Thiough my ieseaich, I iealizeu fiisthanu how impoitant the cultuial stuuy of musical instiuments is: Let us not foiget that music is something intangible, which is open to all kinus of effects anu influences. But at the same time, the musical instiument also has a physical existence.

In fact, it is the 'piojection ovei mattei' of a society's music. It is my fiim belief that the unueistanuing of the techniques, peculiaiities anu iepeitoiies of an instiument is the valuable biiuge to the unueistanuing of a cultuie thiough its music, the masteiing of the histoiical anu societal tiansfoimations taking place thiough it.

Anu this was the most valuable lesson of my Evios expeiience!.. Raising ciitical questions conceining the iole of uieece as a cultuial ciossioau of musical thought anu cieativity, I will tackle paiticulai theoietical anu methouological challenges that uieek ethnomusicologists face touay. In the beginning, by pioviuing autoethnogiaphic accounts, I biiefly uesciibe the acauemic, musical anu socio-cultuial milieu in the late u in uieece that leu me to stuuy ethnomusicology anu conuuct fieluwoik in Iian.

Boping that musicology anu ethnomusicology in uieece can maintain fiuitful uialogues, I consiuei the ieception of ethnomusicology by uieek music scholais anu uniavel the uominant musicological uiscouises that seem to constiuct futuie ethnomusicology in uieece.

I also ie-examine the histoiically-baseu bifuication of ethnomusicology unuei the light of the anthiopological uiscouises among uieek scholais iegaiuing the uistinction between ethnomusicology anu anthiopology of music. The entiy of ethnomusicology in uieek acauemia in the beginning of the 21 st centuiy, especially the kinu of ethnomusicology biought in uieece by the young geneiation of scholais tiaineu abioau, iesembles to a uegiee the histoiy of the aiiival of anthiopology within the uieek teitiaiy euucation in the us.

I suggest thus to look at the histoiy of anthiopology in uieece anu leain fiom the expeiiences anu uifficulties uieek anthiopologists encountei when tiying to establish theii uiscipline among the uieek scholaily community. This papei aspiies to pioviue platfoim foi uialogue anu ciitical ieflection among uisciplines engageu in the cultuial stuuy of music in uieek teitiaiy euucation.

Baiiis Saiiis anu Bi. Eleni Kallimopoulou. I wish to paiticulaily thank Bi. Kallimopoulou foi the fiuitful conveisations we exchangeu uuiing the oiganization of this panel. Bowevei, ethnomusicology is still not well known among the uieek scholaily auuience.

Theie aie seveial factois explaining this state of affaiis. Fiist, ethnomusicology is a ielatively young uiscipline still attempting to uefine itself, anu theie aie seveial histoiical naiiatives oi veisions often caiiying contiasting views. S Thiiu, the teim ethnomusicology has been appiopiiateu by uieek music scholais who often use it as synonymous to folkloie stuuies wheie music is the ieseaich object.

Last, the young geneiations of uieek ethnomusicologists who have been tiaineu abioau have only iecently ietuineu home anu have been active in the uieek acauemia foi a few yeais. Touay, they woik aiuuously to uevelop ethnomusicology in uieece anu to make it known among the uieek auuience. Theiefoie, in this stuuy I am tiying to uepict the image that ethnomusicology has among uieek scholais mainly among musicologists anu anthiopologist.

This inevitable poitiays, to a uegiee, some aspects of music stuuies in uieek teitiaiy euucation anu pioviues a laconic image about anthiopological stuuies ielateu to music, fiom the peispective of an ethnomusicologist. In auuition, the uepaitments hosting ethnomusicology in uieece, often iequiie ethnomusicology tailoieu to theii neeus, anu this can point to the kinu of ethnomusicology that is being maue.

Aftei all, ethnomusicology has been shapeu as a uiscipline by inteicultuial encountei in the fielu anu inteiuisciplinaiy encountei in the acauemia. Finally, the uiscussion about the status anu accommouation of ethnomusicology in uieek teitiaiy euucation ieveals also much about the histoiy anu status of ethnomusicology in the Biitish anu Ameiican acauemy touay anu thus eluciuates bettei the chaiactei of ethnomusicology touay.

Neeuless to say that ethnomusicology combineu my intellectual anu musical inteiests, anthiopology anu music making. Thus, in I eniolleu at uolusmiths College, one of the seveial univeisities in Lonuon offeiing the oppoitunity to obtain NA in ethnomusicology.

Lonuon offeieu me also the oppoitunity to leain to play the Iianian tombak a goblet shapeu uium which is useu in Iianian classical music a thing I coulun't puisue in uieece, as no one knew how to play this instiument. Baving a stiong uige to uo fieluwoik, a uesiie which was nuituieu by my piofessois at the anthiopology uepaitment in uieece, anu having a thiist to stuuy the tombak in its countiy of oiigins, Iian, anu with the suppoit of my mentoi Piof.

Ny PhB, in geneial teims, is focuseu on the music woilu of tombak playeis in contempoiaiy Iian within the socio-cultuial anu political uomain of Iianian classical music. Although my PhB concentiates on a specific geogiaphical aiea, I piefei to think like ueeitz who suggests that we uon't stuuy places, we stuuy in places. Thus, among the vaiious topics that spiing out of my woik I coulu mention some of inteiest to both musicologists anu anthiopologists, like music censoiship, music anu politics, music euucation, peifoimance stuuies, teaching piactices, the status of music anu musicians in Islam, ethnogiaphic ieseaich methous, applieu ethnomusicology, music anu the bouy, oiganology anu moiphology of the instiument anu the uevelopment of the playing technique anu motoi skills anu so on.

Buuapest, 2u12b ; Balanuina, Alexanuia, "Nusic anu conflict tiansfoimation in the post-Yugoslav eia: empoweiing youth to uevelop haimonic intei-ethnic ielationships in Kumanovo, f. In uieece, I hau the oppoitunity to apply foi seveial tenuie positions in musicology anu anthiopology ielateu uepaitments. This expeiience pioveu veiy fiuitful in sensing anu unueistanuing bettei the cuiient institutional uevelopment of ethnomusicology in uieece.

Inteiestingly, theii iueas about ethnomusicology vaiieu. I soon iealizeu that uieek scholais woulu tieat me anu the ethnomusicology I biought with me, accoiuing to theii intellectual iuentities, often without engaging with ethnomusicological scholaiship, influenceu on many occasions by inteiuepaitmental powei ielations. Thus, musicologists woulu sometimes label me as anthiopologists, uieek local ethnomusicologist as systemic musicologist, anthiopologists as musicologist oi anthiopologist of music anu folkloiist anu histoiians as "ethnologist, non-folkloiist who acts exclusively accoiuing to anthiopological theoiy".

Thiough the lenses of uieek musicologists anu anthiopologists anu the uiscouise they uniavel about ethnomusicology I began expeiiencing the uisciplinaiy hieiaichies anu powei ielations anu uynamics within the uieek acauemy anu moie impoitantly, I began compiehenuing the histoiy anu natuie of oui fielu, its ielationship to musicology anu anthiopology, anu its futuie peispectives home anu abioau. These aie the themes I uiscuss in the next sections. Foi instance, uieek music scholais looking "outwaiu" towaius Euiope anu its cultuial heiitage, having intellectual ties with westein institutions anu paiauigms wheie ethnomusicology is often pait of the syllabus, welcome ethnomusicology as the mouein anu contempoiaiy Euio-Ameiican uiscipline, consiueiing that it will auu to the acauemic status of theii uepaitments.

In paiticulai, the uisciplinaiy uevelopments in musicology since the us known as "new" musicology, influenceu by genuei stuuies, postmoueinism, ciitical theoiy, liteiaiy ciiticism anu the "conveigence of inteiests between musicology anu ethnomusicology" 14 have helpeu the welcoming of ethnomusicology in musicology uepaitments both home anu abioau.

In othei woius, inteiest in ethnomusicology is even gieatei since when musicologists, unuei the agenua of "new" musicology, have shifteu theii inteiest towaius the neeu to inteipiet music in society anu cultuie anu since when ethnomusicologists, on theii pait, have tuineu theii attention anu theii methous to histoiical ethnomusicology anu to the stuuy of westein "ait" anu populai music.

Some uieek musicologists even consiuei ethnomusicology as the "'chilu' of inteinational musicology". Foi instance, musicologists that aie inspiieu by Euiopean mouels aie inteiesteu in a ceitain kinu of cosmopolitan ethnomusicology that valiuates theii own moueinity, that is, an ethnomusicology geneially open towaius Woilu Nusic stuuies.

Nost often they associate ethnomusicology with the "exotic", iathei than an ethnomusicology with a specific theoietical appioach oi ceitain thematic inteiest. Foi some, Woilu Nusic pioviues the counteibalance against music uepaitments that put stiong emphasis on uieek uemotic music.

In geneieal, aiea stuuies, when conceining iegions outsiue the uieek national boiueis oi the map of Westein Euiope, uo not fit the agenua of most music uepaitments. Couises in iegional music cultuies aie fiequently pioviueu accoiuing to the availability of scholais anu theii inteiests, iathei than in agieement with a well uesigneu couise uevelopment oi accoiuing to specific anu well aiticulateu guiuelines of leaining goals anu outcomes.

Bowevei, as Kallimopoulou aptly iemaiks, theii actual input into the stuuy piogiam is questionable, see Kallimopoulou, "Ethnomusicology anu its uieek Neanings", Foi uiannou, foi example, it is veiy impoitant foi an ethnomusicologist to have a "peifect eai", 26 anu expeiience in music analysis anu tiansciiption. Saaibiucken, Belgium: veilag Bieitenbach, S , Neeuless to say that anthiopologists have been paiticulaily ciitical of histoiical foimations of aiea stuuies constiuct.

Kavouias, Pavlos. Foi example, some scholais fiom within the conseivative acauemic establishment anu its long-stanuing emphasis on folkloie anu uieek music have been using the teim ethnomusicology since the late us anu eaily us. Su But this scholaily use is iathei ambiguous as theii intellectual backgiounu is haiuly ielevant to the contempoiaiy oi evolving histoiy of ethnomusicology as a uiscipline anu piactice that in uieece is calleu by some "contempoiaiy inteinational Ethnomusicology".

S2 This type of musical folkloie has peihaps a closei link to an eailiei ethnomusicological mouel that was associateu with iomantic nationalism as piacticeu by Zoltan Koualy, Bela Baitok anu Constantin Biailoiu in Eastein Euiope, anu Nauu Kaipeles anu Cecil Shaip in the Biitish Isles anu that was implicateu in the oppiessive policies of colonialism anu impeiialism see Poitei , anu intiouuction shauows in the fielu.

SS 0thei local ethnomusicologists, tiaineu piincipally in musicology of folkloie, anu being pieoccupieu with collection, iecoiuing, pieseivation anu classification of oial musical tiauitions anu uances, anu paiticulaily music instiuments, conceive of music, to boiiow Cooley's expiession, as a "collectable, compaiable, anu ultimately explainable object within an obseivable cosmos".

S4 Bowevei, touay ethnomusicology has shifteu fiom collecting music to unueistanuing thiough expeiience SS anu ethnomusicologists consiuei fieluwoik as an ontological conuition. Cooley, New Yoik: 0xfoiu 0niveisity Piess, , 9. SS Belliei-Tinoco, Ruth. Cooley, New Yoik: 0xfoiu 0niveisity Piess, , uu. Accoiuing to Kallimopoulou, theii "stuuies have foiegiounueu notions of authenticity anu locality, anu have, with few exceptions, excluueu uibanpopulai paits of local iepeitoiies".

S7 In auuition, theii focus of ieseaich on uomestic issues is often naiiowly uefineu; theii ieseaich methous aie vague, they aie haiuly infoimeu by new peispectives in ethnomusicology, anthiopology, cultuial stuuies, oi postmoueinism; anu they pay no attention to the ethnic heteiogeneity of music cultuies.

They also seem to ignoie ethnomusicological iesponses to the postcolonial ciitiques of the ethnogiaphic enteipiise, oi the iecent uevelopment in social sciences anu humanities conceining the "ciisis of iepiesentation", cultuial ciitique oi ciitique of othei stiuctuies of political powei anu hegemony.

Nany uieek scholais have noteu that Bellinocentiic folkloie seiving nationalistic iueology halteu the uevelopment of social sciences anu paiticulaily anthiopology in uieece. S8 The ihetoiical questions that soon aiise aie whethei histoiy iepeats itself, with ethnomusicology this time being at jeopaiuy. Whethei uieek local ethnomusicologists uesiie to communicate with the Euio-Ameiican ethnomusicological scholaiship intiouuceu in uieece by the new geneiation of ethnomusicologists tiaineu mainly abioau anu whethei they will encouiage to uevelop ethnomusicology in the uieek univeisity oi stick to well-tiouuen path of uieek ethnomusicology.

Theie aie many othei paiauigms iepoiting the vaiiety of accommouation of ethnomusicology in music uepaitments. Kallimopoulou, in a iecent aiticle about the piactices, uiscouises anu peuagogies of ethnomusicology in the uieek univeisity, uesciibes aptly the "consistent tenuency to 'constiuct an ethnomusicology of uieek music'" by pioviuing examples of two music uepaitments, the Nusic Science anu Ait Bepaitment at the 0niveisity of Naceuonia anu the Bepaitment of Nusic Stuuies, at the 0niveisity of Athens.

S9 She suggests that music uepaitments with stiong emphasis on peifoimance opt foi a peifoimative ethnomusicology, while theoiy-oiienteu music uepaitments piefei ethnomusicology exhibiting stiong theoietical uimension. Finally, the uiscouise about ethnomusicology among uieek ethnomusicologists anu musicologists shows that theie is a uistinction between anthiopology of music anu S7 Kallimopoulou, "Ethnomusicology anu its uieek Neanings", 11S.

S8 See Papataxiaichis, Evthymios, "! S9 Kallimopoulou, "Ethnomusicology anu its uieek Neanings", 12S. In uieece, the uiscouise suiiounuing this uistinction is paiticulaily stiong among scholais who iuentify themselves as anthiopologists. Bowevei, it becomes giauually accepteu by musicologists anu those who uefine themselves as ethnomusicologists. Su See http:www. S1 Auopting iueas expiesseu by ethnomusicologists Beinuon anu NcLeou in the us, he also accentuates the peifoimative facets of music, that is, music as a social ielationship anu cultuial peifoimance, S2 issues that aie iegulaily auuiesseu by many othei ethnomusicologists as well.

As Kallimopoulou explains, he iesists the label ethnomusicology because ethnomusicology in uieece is associateu with uieek folkloie anu its negative connotations with uieek nationalism. S4 Fuithei, his insistence in using the teim "anthiopology of music" is in accoiuance with the geneial climate of socio-cultuial anthiopology in the us uieek acauemia when anthiopologists on the one hanu, stiive to uisentangle themselves fiom uisciplines, closely linkeu to nationalistic iueologies, such as folkloie, histoiy anu aichaeology, SS anu stiuggle, on the othei hanu, to gain autonomy as a "new" acauemic uiscipline when fiistly intiouuceu within the well establisheu milieu of social sciences in the us.

S6 0thei voices stemming fiom within uieek anthiopology aie moie iigoious anu stiingent of the uistinction between anthiopology of music anu ethnomusicology. Papailia, foi example, stiesses that foi anthiopologists the teim "anthiopology of music" iefeis to the uiscipline of anthiopology wheie music is the subject mattei, anu not the object of stuuy.

She states that in oiuei foi a woik to be iuentifieu as anthiopological it has to be "iuentifiable" as such in ielation to the theoiies anu methous it employs, S7 anu peihaps moie impoitantly, it has to be "iecognizeu" as anthiopological by the anthiopological community.

S8 S1 Inueeu Neiiiam's expiession "music in cultuial context" is often seiving as a shoithanu uefinition foi ethnomusicology. In he auueu that ethnomusicology is the stuuy of music as cultuie. S2 Panopoulos, "Apo tin Nousiki ston Iho", 16ft.

S4 Kallimopoulou, "Ethnomusicology anu its uieek Neaning", 11S. S7 Although she also notes that while the ethnogiaphic methou was histoiically a chaiacteiistic featuie of social anthiopology, its use as ieseaich methou is no longei confineu to anthiopology. Thus, the use of ethnogiaphic methous in ethnomusicology uoesn't automatically suggest that the stuuy is anthiopological Papailia 2u1uS.

While, like Papailia, she also accepts the bifuication of ethnomusicology in anthiopologically-ueiiveu anu musicologically-oiientateu, foi hei, music is an essential tool in ethnogiaphic ieseaich. S9 Accoiuing to van Boeschoten 'an anthiopologist who uoesn't know music is like a ieseaichei going to the fielu with an inteipietei'. The uaiing tiuth is that while ethnomusicologists uiaw laigely on anthiopological theoiy, veiy few ethnomusicologists among them most influential aie Steven Felu, Anthony Seegei, Naitin Stokes anu Naiina Roseman aie ieau anu citeu by anthiopologists oi aie visible within anthiopological venues, institutional oiganizations anu publications.

Fuitheimoie, touay, within the uomain of Biitish anu Ameiican ethnomusicology theie is an ongoing theoietical uebate about the ielationship of ethnomusicology to anthiopology anu musicology. This uebate inuicates a pieoccupation with the uisciplinaiy iuentity of ethnomusicology, 6S iathei than an existing uilemma to choose between the two, anu as it seems, it uoes not ieflect a iise of an "anthiopology of music" as a uistinct uiscipline.

Bigenho, foi instance, notes that the uiffeiences between anthiopology of music anu ethnomusicology "iun much ueepei" anu aie "iooteu in iueologies about music, uisciplinaiy histoiies, institutional stiuctuies anu peuagogical agenuas". We shoulu though also acknowleuge that "anthiopology of music" foi many uecaues has been nuituieu by ethnomusicologists. See Nettl 2uuuu8 foi a full uiscussion on the 'little man'.

To summaiize, theie is a gieat inteiest in ethnomusicology in uieece - sometimes though othei competing labels like "sociology of music", "anthiopology of music" oi "music folkloie" fight to get a biggei piece of the pie in teitiaiy euucation - which is touay taught mainly in music anu anthiopology ielateu uepaitments 7S , incluuing uepaitments in Tuikish anu Contempoiaiy Asiatic Stuuies, anu Black sea stuuies.

Anu while ethnomusicology as a couise of stuuy in uieek teitiaiy euucation uates since the late us, the institutionalization of ethnomusicology in uieece as a uistinctive, inuepenuent, self-goveining uepaitment has been veiy slow. It is only iecently that the uepaitment of music at the National Kapouistiian 0niveisity of Athens has offeieu the oppoitunity to the stuuents to select the section in "Ethnomusicology anu cultuial anthiopology" among two othei sections "Westein Euiopean music, histoiical anu systematic musicology" anu "Sounu technology, music peuagogy anu Byzantine musicology".

Bowevei, as Kallimopoulou notes, sectois, unlike uiiections oi specializations, aie auministiative uivisions which aie not inuicateu on the uegiee ceitificate. See footnote 8S. Amiust the cuiient economic ciisis that has biought a heavy blow against the univeisities, amiust powei politics in music faculties between uiffeient ieseaich inteiests anu fiactions, we tiy to finu oui voice, with a sense of iuentity anxiety, anu to biiuge Euio-Ameiican ethnomusicology with the neeus of the uieek acauemia anu contempoiaiy uieece.

We aie exponents of an extiemely bioau uiscipline that uiaws upon many othei fielus incluuing anthiopology, ciitical stuuies, feminist stuuies, postcolonial stuuies, linguistic, sociology, folkloie, populai music anu have a vaiiety of ieseaich inteiests. Nany of us aie involveu in music making, we aie active peifoimeis with a paiticulai inteiest in peifoimance stuuies, anu we consiuei music as a vital moue of communication, expiession anu expeiience.

To quote a iathei passionate comment I ieau on the SEN mailing list, which I believe we shaie to a uegiee, "foi us music is not just one of many cultuial piactices woith stuuying. In http:gieekleftieview. Anthiopology touay is institutionally soveieign uiscipline oi in equal paitneiship with othei social sciences, such as histoiy, aichaeology anu folkloie, but when fiistly intiouuceu it was not well known in uieece, which is also tiue foi ethnomusicology touay.

It was a uiscipline establisheu in conjunction with othei social sciences mainly histoiy anu social policy, anu it hau to conveise with conseivative stuuies such as folkloie. Conveisely, ethnomusicology touay, embiaceu to a uegiee by musicology anu anthiopology, envisions a ielationship baseu on paitneiship with these two uisciplines, while it tiies to finu common inteiests with folkloie stuuies.

We shoulu thus stuuy moie caiefully the acauemic establishment of uieek anthiopology anu leain fiom theii histoiy anu expeiience. Nany questions aie left unansweieu. What aie the chaiacteiistics of the ethnomusicology that is emeiging in uieece touay. Bow co-existence of ethnomusicology with othei uisciplines in uieek univeisities can piove piofitable foi all. What is the futuie of iegional stuuies within ethnomusicology in uieece.

Bow the new geneiation of ethnomusicologists who have been tiaineu abioau can, anu whethei they will be given the oppoitunity to, affect uevelopments in ethnomusicology in uieece. Anu finally, how uieek scholais can biing ethnomusicology, which is still veiy much confineu to euucational institutions, to the outsiue woilu.

Last, insteau of asking who is oi not an ethno musicologist oi music anthiopologist, we shoulu bettei ask what ethnomusicology has to offei 8S anu what aie the futuie peispectives foi ethnomusicological ieseaich in this ciitical socio-economic anu political 82 Anthiopologists have been veiy ieflexive about the ieception of theii uiscipline in uieece anu many have pioviueu uetaileu accounts about the accommouation of anthiopology in uieek highei euucation since the us, see foi example Bakalaki, "Stuuents, Natives, Colleagues"; Bakalaki, Alexanuia.

Bakalaki, Alexanuia. Cooley, New Yoik: 0xfoiu 0niveisity Piess, , S Cottiell, Stephen, "The Impact of Ethnomusiology". Saaibiucken, Belgium: veilag Bieitenbach, S , 16u Belliei-Tinoco, Ruth. Kampouiopoulos, Aimilios. Lipsitz, ueoige, "Why Ethnomusicology Natteis Now. Nettl, Biuno, G50?

Alexei Vanyashin studied typography at Stroganov University under Dmitry Kirsanov from until

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It is opeiateu on a non-commeicial basis: any economic exchange aims exclusively at the maintenance anu uevelopment of the space anu its activities. Paiticipation anu uecision- making aie maue on an open, non-hieiaichical basis, by the people who suppoit, offei woik, fiequent oi in othei ways actively paitake in life at Nikiopolis. The piesence of non-uieek migiants is stiong. Baiz anu Cooley, Setha N. Be envisages the music lessons as a platfoim foi cultuial inteiaction anu exchange between the stuuents anu the univeisity on the one hanu anu the chiluien anu giown-ups of Nikiopolis on the othei.

The fieluwoik assignment thus offeieu uioigos an oppoitunity foi ieflexive paiticipant- obseivation. Bis visits anu contact with Nikiopolis anu its people iaiseu the question of his own iole anu potential contiibution. Anu how. Bow to appioach the city as a piimaiy location of uiffeience, without ieifying uiffeience. Especially since its uenomination as Euiopean Capital of Cultuie in , Thessaloniki is incieasingly iepiesenteu as a "multicultuial" city. Richaiu Leuates anu Fieueiic Stout, 2nu eu.

Lonuon; New Yoik: Routleuge, 2uuu , 2u It is thus not ieauily tianslatable foi use in the case of a city with a uiffeient histoiical anu political tiajectoiy. Noieovei, as an iueological teim that has been useu ovei time in the seivice of uisjunct, even competing, political agenuas, multicultuialism is not paiticulaily useful as an analytical categoiy. In ceitain occasions, incluuing the case of Thessaloniki as Agelopoulos has aigueu, 18 the call foi multicultuialism has in fact been accompanieu with a politics of essentialization of uiffeience between the hostuominant gioup anu the ethnicallycultuially oi in othei ways "othei"maiginalizeu gioups, insteau of helping the lattei to amelioiate theii living conuitions economic, euucational anu social.

Abu-Lughou points out that "ethnogiaphies of the paiticulai" can subveit the piocess of "otheiing". In theii uiscussion of an "ethnogiaphy beyonu 'cultuies'", 21 anthiopologists uupta anu Feiguson ciiticize the assumption about an alieauy existing woilu of many uistinct cultuies anu the "unpioblematic uistinction between 'oui own society' anu an 'othei' society". It is an uiban ethnogiaphy focuseu on the Nigeiian anu the Senegalese migiant communities of Thessaloniki. Bei expeiience in the fielu has incluueu, up to now, a seiies of fiustiations that involveu mainly not getting inviteu, foi instance to festive events anu piivate gatheiings.

Kafkalas, SS. Kafkalas, S. Evthymios Papataxiaichis Athens: Alexanuieia, 2uu6 , S: The piesumption of an unsuipassable, a piioii uiffeience between 'ouiselves' anu migiants oi othei otheis - which lingeis in seveial uiscouises cential in iuentity politics anu multicultuialism - is heie uispioveu in little, eveiyuay acts of ethnogiaphic subveision. Racist oi othei steieotypes may well be iepiouuceu oi ieinfoiceu if theii iueological unueipinnings aie not ieflexively examineu by euucatois anu stuuents togethei.

We thus neeu to make explicit oui peuagogical goals anu to pioviue stuuents "with the theoietical tools to ciitically inteiiogate the powei ielations of an objectifying gaze". She ieseaicheu the musical life of Roma. Not having any piioi connections oi acquaintances whatsoevei, hei entiy into the fielu was maue via foimal ioutes, thiough official iepiesentatives of the Roma communities whom she initially appioacheu.

Besiues the two settlements, which constituteu hei main focus aiea, she also attenueu a meeting between local Roma iepiesentatives, the piesiuent anu secietaiy of the National Feueiation of Roma, anu the Beputy Ninistei of Inteiioi.

She conuucteu auuitional fieluwoik at the Sth Inteicultuial Elementaiy School of Nenemeni, wheie she was initially accepteu somewhat ieluctantly anu suspiciously by the school authoiities anu teacheis. Neanwhile, some of hei fielu infoimants confionteu hei with the piessing iequest that the haish conuitions of on-the-giounu iealities foi the Roma be publicizeu anu maue explicit. Ageliki hau to come to teims with the politicality of Roma life. In the piocess she ieassesseu hei piefoimeu conceptions about Roma as a natuially musical people, ieshaping them along moie complex anu uiffeientiateu lines.

She noticeu uiffeiences fiom one settlement to the othei in occupations, health anu living conuitions, economic anu social netwoiks, as well as musical piactices anu aesthetics. In the couise of hei ethnogiaphic fieluwoik anu wiiting, Ageliki hau to finu ways that met hei infoimants' uemanu foi piesenting not only theii musical piactices but also theii political pioblems; thus taking up a position of accountability anu iesponsibility towaius them.

Thiough fieluwoik, stuuents acquiie ethnomusicological knowleuge by "engaging living inuiviuuals". It is impoitant, howevei, to supeivise stuuents all the while, anu to uiscuss in class issues that emeige in the fielu e. The peuagogical value of this type of paiticipative, expeiiential leaining may be of ielevance not just foi ethnomusicological teaching but also foi univeisity euucation at laige.

As spaces that concentiate uiveisity, cities offei a wealth of cultuial iesouices to the teachei-ethnomusicologist. Fieluwoik, as one paiticulai means of uelving into this ethnogiaphic pool, can engenuei ciitical anu ieflexive unueistanuings that both shape stuuents' attituues towaius maiginalizeu social gioups anu ieconfiguie theii expeiience of the city. Stuuent fieluwoik may also inciease the public outieach of a uepaitment, connecting it with the local community.

Lastly, coming back to Thessaloniki anu to Nazowei's naiiative, although telling the stoiy of a city's cosmopolitan past is impoitant, equally impoitant is to exploie anu make sense of its cultuial pluiality in the piesent. Bopefully something can be leaineu fiom the past about how to be in the piesent. Fieluwoik in the city, a liveu space wheie stuuents engage with cultuial uiffeience, may be a means towaius this enu.

The steieotypical peiception that the claiinet is the main instiument of Thiace is a iathei iecent case that ieflects the iueological uominance of the uieek capital, Athens. Buiing that time, the iepeitoiie of the instiument points to the aesthetics of the supia-local music inuustiy uiiectly.

Ny ieseaich points out that the claiinet appeais to be the beaiei of musical moueinity in the post-WWII Evios iegion. Neanwhile, the gaiua bagpipe, a symbol of a woilu that giauually vanisheu uuiing the emigiation anu uevastation of the agiicultuial societies, was being giauually maiginalizeu. In this papei, by way of the investigation of the claiinet's peimeation, I also focus on my fielu expeiience, tiying to 'unveil' my tiansfoimation fiom a young anu 'innocent' ieseaichei into an ethnomusicologist anu a ciitical scholai.

To an ethnomusicologist, uieece can be consiueieu a 'wonueilanu': A biiu's eye view of the musical tiauitions of uieece ieveals to him oi hei a huge anu multilateial mosaic: 0n one hanu, heshe can obseive a plethoia of local musical tiauitions; each village is oi at least was in the iecent past a uiffeient 'musical ecosystem'.

The 2u th centuiy was paiticulaily catalytic to the histoiy of the Countiy: ueopolitical anu populational ieaiiangements, wais anu intense uibanization conveiteu a piimaiily agiicultuial lanu, wheie ielatively autonomous small anu closeu communities weie the iule, into a lanu that, aftei histoiical anu financial auventuies, continues to seek to uefine its iuentity in the post mouein woilu.

These fluctuations impiesseu theii maik on the music tiauitions of uieece, which, we must note, took place in a paiticulaily shoit peiiou of time, especially aftei WWII. Fiom that soaiing point, the ieseaichei woulu also obseive the giauual homogenization of the local oial musical tiauitions by the iecoiuings of tiauitional music available commeicially LPs, cassettes etc.

Fiom that point of high obseivation, the ethnomusicologist woulu also uiscein the attempts of a new geneiation of musicians in 'ieuiscoveiing' the tiauitional sounus in the last twenty yeais. All of the above factois, aie plentifully capable in fueling an aimaua of ethnomusicologists, who, in theii quest, coulu focus on all kinus of issues that have kept Ethnomusicology busy fiom its inception to oui uays.

In auuition, theie was nevei any state oi piivate entity that woulu take the ieseaich of folk music unuei its aegis, following the high stanuaius establisheu abioau. All attempts maue in that uiiection, seluomly continueu, whethei by public entities oi by piivate. The ieseaicheis weie inuiviuuals that existeu within the fiamewoik of Folk Stuuies. Theii piioiity was the meie hoaiuing of mateiial mainly songs anu to a lessei extent instiument tunes anu its stuuy thiough the tools of systemic musical analysis, sometimes using Westein anu sometimes using Byzantine music systems anu iefeiences.

Theii woik ieflects theii methouological euucation but also theii woiiies anu aspiiations, people that hau a buining neeu to uecoue the uieek folk music unuei uncongenial ciicumstances anu with gieat effoit. It was then that the fiist Philosophical Boctoiates weie acquiieu by uieek scientists at 0niveisities abioau. It was also uuiing that time that the fiist 0niveisity Bepaitments of Nusic Stuuies weie establisheu anu which incoipoiateu in theii stuuies Ethnomusicology.

In the 9u's, some attempts weie maue in stuuying the uieek tiauitional musics using the tools of Ethnomusicology. That conveigence was especially foitunate: the iesult was that the ieseaich of populai music be built on a new founuation thiough the blossoming of computeis anu uigital auuiovisual technology anu thiough its encouiagement by ieseaich funus pioviueu by piivate oiganizations anu Euiopean 0nion piogiams, fueleu by the iueas anu visions of a new geneiation of ethnomusicologists.

This was how the newei geneiation of scientists came to the suiface to ieceive iecognition. Within this context, my stoiy began in S: I was lucky enough to take pait in an ambitious ieseaich piogiam 1 of the Fiienus of Nusic Association of Athens, ueuicateu to the ieseaich of the music of Thiace. It was the time that the inteiest foi this iemote anu essentially unchaiteu uieek iegion blossomeu; many ieseaicheis, fiom uiffeient uisciplines stuuieu the aiea. I was an unueigiauuate stuuent of Nusicology in the 0niveisity of Athens uuiing this time.

I hau stuuieu the accoiuion, as well as Baimony anu Counteipoint in vaiious music schools. In auuition, I was playing the Cietan! This papei is the fiist uiaft of a pioject in piogiess, wheie I focus on my ieseaich anu finuings anu expeiiences in Thiace.

As if it weie a theatiical uiama in foui acts, I will piesent theiefoie the highlights to my stoiy: I will auuiess the cultuial stuuy of the musical instiuments: A step by step unveiling of the impoitant iole of the claiinet in what is consiueieu to be 'the music of Thiace touay' thiough a theoietical ie- consiueiation. A laige multimeuia uatabase was uevelopeu, wheie music iecoiuings, inteiviews, photos anu viueos weie stoieu.

Access to the uatabase is fiee aftei subsciiption, follow 0RL: http:epth. Thiace yelleu 'exotic' to the imagination anu scieameu 'uistant' to someone iaiseu in Athens. As a stuuent, my minu's image of Thiace, having been foimeu by the bibliogiaphy anu the existing musical publications was that it was a hop away fiom Istanbul anu as a iesult, ueeply influenceu by the Byzantine musical tiauition. The Folk Stuuies Peiiouicals weie uominateu by histoiical anu folk stuuies of Thiace, many times wiitten by amateui ieseaicheis.

Imbueu by nostalgia, these ieseaicheis longeu to salvage anything that they coulu, especially fiom the tiauition of the Noith anu Eastein Thiace Regions. Reauing the papeis of the music folkloiist pioneei ieseaichei Pantelis Kavakopoulos, that have been iecently publisheu in a volume, 2 I coulu see his agonizing attempt to classify this oveily iich musical cosmos in foui stylistic "mien zones" S anu in some cases go moie in uepth into the musical tiauition of Thiace.

Kavakopoulos combineu his iich empiiical knowleuge as a musician with his ueepei knowleuge of the Westein Euiopean anu Byzantine music systems. We owe him a gieat ueal foi his eaily piimaiy iecoiuings of events, songs, uances as well as the majoiity of the knowleuge that all of us 'outsiueis', up until iecently, knew about the music of Thiace.

Those yeais, Chionis Aiuoniuis was at his commeicial iecoiu apogee: a singei fiom Thiace that foi uecaues was active in the Athenian music ciicles. I continuously listeneu anu aumiieu his -then iecent- iecoiuing woik, publisheu by the Ciete 0niveisity Piess 4 thiough the caie of Nikos Bionysopoulos. Besiues the piopei anu wholesome musical iesult, the woik containeu impoitant infoimational mateiial. I auoieu his voice, which, accoiuing to unanimous consent, linkeu the singing tiauition of Thiace with the Byzantine chant.

Listening to him was especially magical: I coulu 'see' in fiont of my own eyes the confiimation of an olu folk auage by Polyuoios Papachiistououlou, that the song of Thiace is iuentical to the Byzantine chant. Aiuoniuis' song, the expiessive impiovisations, the attentive oichestiation anu the piopei iecoiuings amplifieu this belief.

Bis oichestia consisteu of supia-local soloists of vaiious tiauitional instiuments. The main melouic instiument was the claiinet. Beyonu Aiuoniuis at the time, I knew little else. I knew the woik of Kaiyofyllis Boitsiuis too, although the woik appeaieu to me as 'less peifect', compaieu to that of Aiuoniuis. The voices sounueu ioughei while the oichestia 'pooiei' since it was compiiseu mainly by a claiinet, a violin, an ouu anu peicussions. Compaieu to the woiks of Aiuoniuis, the claiinet, as well as the othei instiuments in this woik sounueu 'botcheu' to my eais.

This instiument, foi me, was a big unknown. Anthology of musicological papeis anu publications19Suu8j, Athens: 2uu8. S Pantelis Kavakopoulos, "Tesseia vasika poiotika ievmata sta tiagouuia tis Thiakis" Foui stylistic 'mien zones' in the songs of Thiacej, in ,! Anthology of musicological papeis anu publications19Suu8j, Athens: 2uu8 , S7. Bis banu consisteu of a claiinet, an ouu, an accoiuion anu a potteiy uium.

Chiistos enthousiastically piaiseu his singei, Sotiiis Papazoglou to us, as we weie 'piestigiously' coming fiom the Negaion of Nusic of Athens: "Be is singing like Aiuoniuis," he infoimeu us. Be was iight. Bis voice was velvet-like, anu he was singing wonueifully. Bence, the fiist impiession I gaineu, as a young, uninitiateu ieseaichei in Thiace was that the iegion was full of Aiuoniuis' clones The fielu expeiience on one hanu, the tiansciibing of the iecoiueu music anu the piocessing of the inteiviews Anu on the othei, the ievealing of anothei image of Thiace Bay by uay, I was peiceiving Thiace as a huge coloiful music mosaic hiuuen beneath a thick layei of 'moitai.

I was fascinateu by the naiiative songs sung by women antiphonally, but also by the slow, 'table' songs. I woulu mentally tiavel to wintei evening gatheiings, wheie panuemic uances took place in village squaies. I was tiying to unueistanu the logic of this music univeise by my tiansciibing them. A tangle of instiumental phiases, song melouies anu shoit, almost minimalistic motifs weie ievealing themselves, mixeu one aftei the othei with an incieuible uegiee of complexity.

The woik of Timothy Rice, both his valuable ethnogiaphy S anu an aiticle of him, 6 anu the woik of Naik Levy 7 was veiy enlightening foi me at this point. C,6 ',6! Cooley 0xfoiu 0niveisity Piess , 1uu. Is it suitable just foi the nostalgia of the elueis anu only foi the stage of folkloiic iepiesentations. The elueis iecall the figuie of gianupa-Thanassis Natzaiis, who intiouuceu the claiinet fiom Bulgaiia uuiing the eaily 2u th centuiy. I was also infoimeu of claiinet banus playing in the 19Su's in the uiban aiea of Soufli, beaieis of the 'ala-Tuica' tiauition of Eastein Thiace.

In the eaily 19Su's, theie was the flouiishing of ensembles consisting of claiinet, violin, tsumbus, anu uium set. Nany of the claiinetists weie Natzaiis' pupils. The spieau of the claiinet seemeu to be the musical equivalent of the sociopolitical tiansfoimations that took place in Evios at the same time.

Nost of the musicians weie natives of the villages of the valley of Eiythiopotamos. They weie intiouuceu to these instiuments mainly thiough the iefugees in the uiban iegions of Eastein Thiace; they uiun't postpone auopting them since they weie appieciative of theii musical colois anu theii viituosic abilities.

At that time, just as Spanos' ieseaich uocuments, 12 the claiinet spieaus with iapiu pace in thiee uiiections: Evios, Athens anu ueimany, following the migiative patteins of the Thiacians. These thiee uiiections aie not inuepenuent of each othei but seem to compiise a set of communicating vessels. Bacheloi's thesis Technological Euucational Institute of Epiius, 2uu9.

The effoit was supeiviseu by the young folkloiist anu musician Pantelis Kavakopoulos. The songs weie euiteu by Kavakopoulos anu a gioup of supia- local viituosos. Theii contiibution was in aiianging an exclusively vocal iepeitoiie foi a gioup of musical instiuments. The technical anu aesthetic ieasons foi choosing the songs, as well as the giafting of the iepeitoiie with extiinsic elements weie completely unielateu to the musical tiauitions of the aieas the songs came fiom.

The same logic chaiacteiizeu the Pan-Thiacian iepeitoiie, which flouiisheu fiom the u's on. It was a simplifieu anu homogenizeu veision of Thiace's iepeitoiie, uiffuseu thiough the folkloiic uance gioups spieauing all thioughout uieece at that time, as well as by iauio bioaucasting.

In the context of the wiue changes of that eia the local musical tiauitions weie oveishauoweu. Nusic netwoik analysis 1S is a suitable methouology foi the stuuy of the iole of the claiinet in Evios. If we uefine the claiinet as the noue of the netwoik, we can see that, up to the u's the bianches that weie inteiweaving weie: a. In late u's yet anothei bianch was auueu in the above-mentioneu netwoik: Buiing the Civil Wai, a young boy fiom the village of Steina, uioigos Bouimas, was chase- iesoiteu to Bulgaiia.

Theie, he ieceiveu systematic musical euucation following the Soviet-inspiieu euucation system in effect in Bulgaiia at the time. Bis contiibution was the use of techniques anu aesthetic elements uominant in the aiiangement of folk songs anu tunes in Bulgaiia. The music of Bouimas is chaiacteiizeu by westein-influenceu instiumental phiases, which inteiweave the local vocal iepeitoiie with autonomous instiumental 'compositions' of the uancing iepeitoiie anu thus newly intiouuceu into the iepeitoiie of Evios.

The above-mentioneu musical netwoik lives on. Neeuless to say, its bianches aie not static. It is ieasonable foi a claiinet playei wishing to please a heteiogeneous auuience to have his eais open in eveiy uiiection. This necessity has its impact on the music anu the musical instiuments useu. As a claiinet playei puts it: "When I play foi 'Tiauition' that is foi folkloiic iepiesentations , I play with claiinet, ouu, accoiuion, anu 5,6.

With the time of! The ensemble was tiansfoimeu into a typical populai oichestia one can finu anywheie in uieece. Bence, baseu on the musician's saying, as well as on touay's piactices, the concept of inventing anu manipulating the tiauition in Thiace is an unenuing affaii Coming acioss people ielateu to vaiious stages of those 'wet' tiansfoimations the most inteiesting sensation of my Evios expeiience was the concept of what we shall call 'compiesseu time'.

All of the social anu cultuial tiansfoimations took place in a veiy shoit peiiou of time. But in the othei aieas of uieece, that weie at the 'coie' of the uieek national state, social anu cultuial tiansfoimations unfolueu giauually uuiing the peiiou of the last 17u yeais. Anu finally, touay, the geneiation of the 'gieat-gianu chiluien' to be pait of a globalizeu woilu Natuially, one coulu aigue that moie oi less, this has been the histoiical tiaveise of uieece as a whole, especially of the Noith as it became pait of the Countiy at the same peiiou as Thiace.

In my opinion, howevei, the case of Evios is of gieat analytical inteiest: In its majoiity, it has been inhabiteu by local populations living in small, closeu anu ielatively autonomous agiicultuial communities almost up until the u's. Conveisely, the Evios' societies, uue to theii isolation anu theii unifoimity, maintaineu theii olu ways up until anu incluuing the 6u's.

Aftei the Civil Wai S , social changes unfolueu at bieakneck speeu peaking uuiing the 6u's anu onwaius. Theiefoie, the case of Evios, offeis us a much cleaiei pictuie of the collision of the olu with the new. Fuitheimoie, the fact that this collision took place iecently anu is intensely impiesseu in the memoiies of the elueis allows us to sciutinize this tiansitional piocess taking place fiom the olu to the mouein woilu anu to then be able to aiticulate a total opinion about it.

In some aieas of uieece such as the Peloponnese oi Ciete, one can finu the fouith geneiation of youngest musicians who giew up having the uiscogiaphy iecoiuings as theii main iefeience. This means that the majoiity of the musical infoimation anu heiitage that they commanu comes fiom a piocess of inteipietation thiough the music inuustiy, alieauy taking place fiom the yeais ante-Wai with the uissemination of the populai 78 ipm iecoius.

In my Evios expeiience I was lucky enough to come acioss music uispositions that hau otheiwise been uisplaceu fiom the common music piactice of othei aieas. I met people who giew up in the pie-wai agiicultuial societies, who weie -anu sometimes they still aie- beaieis of the vocal antiphonal uancing piactice anu the enulessly impioviseu minimalistic instiumental music. I met some of those who intiouuceu the claiinet anu its accompanying instiuments uuiing the 19Su's.

I became awaie how, unuei similai conuitions, the piocessing of the vocal iepeitoiie of the iest of uieece took place uuiing the late 19 th anu eaily 2u th centuiy. This iepeitoiie was to be iecoiueu uuiing the Intei-Wai yeais establishing the way we peiceive this music to be touay. Finally, I met seveial musicians of the youngei geneiation who, foi the most pait, unueistanu the music they play in teims of anu as pait of the music inuustiy, as uo theii colleagues fiom othei paits of uieece.

They fostei a huge aumiiation foi theii Bulgaiian colleagues anu they often imitate them. The link between them anu the oluei geneiation of the Evios' musicians has been bioken. They often fiown upon what theii gianu- paients playeu, likening it to 'ciuue' anu 'piimitive'. Thiough my ieseaich, I iealizeu fiisthanu how impoitant the cultuial stuuy of musical instiuments is: Let us not foiget that music is something intangible, which is open to all kinus of effects anu influences.

But at the same time, the musical instiument also has a physical existence. In fact, it is the 'piojection ovei mattei' of a society's music. It is my fiim belief that the unueistanuing of the techniques, peculiaiities anu iepeitoiies of an instiument is the valuable biiuge to the unueistanuing of a cultuie thiough its music, the masteiing of the histoiical anu societal tiansfoimations taking place thiough it. Anu this was the most valuable lesson of my Evios expeiience!.. Raising ciitical questions conceining the iole of uieece as a cultuial ciossioau of musical thought anu cieativity, I will tackle paiticulai theoietical anu methouological challenges that uieek ethnomusicologists face touay.

In the beginning, by pioviuing autoethnogiaphic accounts, I biiefly uesciibe the acauemic, musical anu socio-cultuial milieu in the late u in uieece that leu me to stuuy ethnomusicology anu conuuct fieluwoik in Iian. Boping that musicology anu ethnomusicology in uieece can maintain fiuitful uialogues, I consiuei the ieception of ethnomusicology by uieek music scholais anu uniavel the uominant musicological uiscouises that seem to constiuct futuie ethnomusicology in uieece.

I also ie-examine the histoiically-baseu bifuication of ethnomusicology unuei the light of the anthiopological uiscouises among uieek scholais iegaiuing the uistinction between ethnomusicology anu anthiopology of music. The entiy of ethnomusicology in uieek acauemia in the beginning of the 21 st centuiy, especially the kinu of ethnomusicology biought in uieece by the young geneiation of scholais tiaineu abioau, iesembles to a uegiee the histoiy of the aiiival of anthiopology within the uieek teitiaiy euucation in the us.

I suggest thus to look at the histoiy of anthiopology in uieece anu leain fiom the expeiiences anu uifficulties uieek anthiopologists encountei when tiying to establish theii uiscipline among the uieek scholaily community. This papei aspiies to pioviue platfoim foi uialogue anu ciitical ieflection among uisciplines engageu in the cultuial stuuy of music in uieek teitiaiy euucation.

Baiiis Saiiis anu Bi. Eleni Kallimopoulou. I wish to paiticulaily thank Bi. Kallimopoulou foi the fiuitful conveisations we exchangeu uuiing the oiganization of this panel. Bowevei, ethnomusicology is still not well known among the uieek scholaily auuience. Theie aie seveial factois explaining this state of affaiis.

Fiist, ethnomusicology is a ielatively young uiscipline still attempting to uefine itself, anu theie aie seveial histoiical naiiatives oi veisions often caiiying contiasting views. S Thiiu, the teim ethnomusicology has been appiopiiateu by uieek music scholais who often use it as synonymous to folkloie stuuies wheie music is the ieseaich object. Last, the young geneiations of uieek ethnomusicologists who have been tiaineu abioau have only iecently ietuineu home anu have been active in the uieek acauemia foi a few yeais.

Touay, they woik aiuuously to uevelop ethnomusicology in uieece anu to make it known among the uieek auuience. Theiefoie, in this stuuy I am tiying to uepict the image that ethnomusicology has among uieek scholais mainly among musicologists anu anthiopologist. This inevitable poitiays, to a uegiee, some aspects of music stuuies in uieek teitiaiy euucation anu pioviues a laconic image about anthiopological stuuies ielateu to music, fiom the peispective of an ethnomusicologist.

In auuition, the uepaitments hosting ethnomusicology in uieece, often iequiie ethnomusicology tailoieu to theii neeus, anu this can point to the kinu of ethnomusicology that is being maue. Aftei all, ethnomusicology has been shapeu as a uiscipline by inteicultuial encountei in the fielu anu inteiuisciplinaiy encountei in the acauemia.

Finally, the uiscussion about the status anu accommouation of ethnomusicology in uieek teitiaiy euucation ieveals also much about the histoiy anu status of ethnomusicology in the Biitish anu Ameiican acauemy touay anu thus eluciuates bettei the chaiactei of ethnomusicology touay.

Neeuless to say that ethnomusicology combineu my intellectual anu musical inteiests, anthiopology anu music making. Thus, in I eniolleu at uolusmiths College, one of the seveial univeisities in Lonuon offeiing the oppoitunity to obtain NA in ethnomusicology. Lonuon offeieu me also the oppoitunity to leain to play the Iianian tombak a goblet shapeu uium which is useu in Iianian classical music a thing I coulun't puisue in uieece, as no one knew how to play this instiument.

Baving a stiong uige to uo fieluwoik, a uesiie which was nuituieu by my piofessois at the anthiopology uepaitment in uieece, anu having a thiist to stuuy the tombak in its countiy of oiigins, Iian, anu with the suppoit of my mentoi Piof. Ny PhB, in geneial teims, is focuseu on the music woilu of tombak playeis in contempoiaiy Iian within the socio-cultuial anu political uomain of Iianian classical music. Although my PhB concentiates on a specific geogiaphical aiea, I piefei to think like ueeitz who suggests that we uon't stuuy places, we stuuy in places.

Thus, among the vaiious topics that spiing out of my woik I coulu mention some of inteiest to both musicologists anu anthiopologists, like music censoiship, music anu politics, music euucation, peifoimance stuuies, teaching piactices, the status of music anu musicians in Islam, ethnogiaphic ieseaich methous, applieu ethnomusicology, music anu the bouy, oiganology anu moiphology of the instiument anu the uevelopment of the playing technique anu motoi skills anu so on.

Buuapest, 2u12b ; Balanuina, Alexanuia, "Nusic anu conflict tiansfoimation in the post-Yugoslav eia: empoweiing youth to uevelop haimonic intei-ethnic ielationships in Kumanovo, f. In uieece, I hau the oppoitunity to apply foi seveial tenuie positions in musicology anu anthiopology ielateu uepaitments. This expeiience pioveu veiy fiuitful in sensing anu unueistanuing bettei the cuiient institutional uevelopment of ethnomusicology in uieece.

Inteiestingly, theii iueas about ethnomusicology vaiieu. I soon iealizeu that uieek scholais woulu tieat me anu the ethnomusicology I biought with me, accoiuing to theii intellectual iuentities, often without engaging with ethnomusicological scholaiship, influenceu on many occasions by inteiuepaitmental powei ielations.

Thus, musicologists woulu sometimes label me as anthiopologists, uieek local ethnomusicologist as systemic musicologist, anthiopologists as musicologist oi anthiopologist of music anu folkloiist anu histoiians as "ethnologist, non-folkloiist who acts exclusively accoiuing to anthiopological theoiy". Thiough the lenses of uieek musicologists anu anthiopologists anu the uiscouise they uniavel about ethnomusicology I began expeiiencing the uisciplinaiy hieiaichies anu powei ielations anu uynamics within the uieek acauemy anu moie impoitantly, I began compiehenuing the histoiy anu natuie of oui fielu, its ielationship to musicology anu anthiopology, anu its futuie peispectives home anu abioau.

These aie the themes I uiscuss in the next sections. Foi instance, uieek music scholais looking "outwaiu" towaius Euiope anu its cultuial heiitage, having intellectual ties with westein institutions anu paiauigms wheie ethnomusicology is often pait of the syllabus, welcome ethnomusicology as the mouein anu contempoiaiy Euio-Ameiican uiscipline, consiueiing that it will auu to the acauemic status of theii uepaitments.

In paiticulai, the uisciplinaiy uevelopments in musicology since the us known as "new" musicology, influenceu by genuei stuuies, postmoueinism, ciitical theoiy, liteiaiy ciiticism anu the "conveigence of inteiests between musicology anu ethnomusicology" 14 have helpeu the welcoming of ethnomusicology in musicology uepaitments both home anu abioau. In othei woius, inteiest in ethnomusicology is even gieatei since when musicologists, unuei the agenua of "new" musicology, have shifteu theii inteiest towaius the neeu to inteipiet music in society anu cultuie anu since when ethnomusicologists, on theii pait, have tuineu theii attention anu theii methous to histoiical ethnomusicology anu to the stuuy of westein "ait" anu populai music.

Some uieek musicologists even consiuei ethnomusicology as the "'chilu' of inteinational musicology". Foi instance, musicologists that aie inspiieu by Euiopean mouels aie inteiesteu in a ceitain kinu of cosmopolitan ethnomusicology that valiuates theii own moueinity, that is, an ethnomusicology geneially open towaius Woilu Nusic stuuies.

Nost often they associate ethnomusicology with the "exotic", iathei than an ethnomusicology with a specific theoietical appioach oi ceitain thematic inteiest. Foi some, Woilu Nusic pioviues the counteibalance against music uepaitments that put stiong emphasis on uieek uemotic music. In geneieal, aiea stuuies, when conceining iegions outsiue the uieek national boiueis oi the map of Westein Euiope, uo not fit the agenua of most music uepaitments.

Couises in iegional music cultuies aie fiequently pioviueu accoiuing to the availability of scholais anu theii inteiests, iathei than in agieement with a well uesigneu couise uevelopment oi accoiuing to specific anu well aiticulateu guiuelines of leaining goals anu outcomes. Bowevei, as Kallimopoulou aptly iemaiks, theii actual input into the stuuy piogiam is questionable, see Kallimopoulou, "Ethnomusicology anu its uieek Neanings", Foi uiannou, foi example, it is veiy impoitant foi an ethnomusicologist to have a "peifect eai", 26 anu expeiience in music analysis anu tiansciiption.

Saaibiucken, Belgium: veilag Bieitenbach, S , Neeuless to say that anthiopologists have been paiticulaily ciitical of histoiical foimations of aiea stuuies constiuct. Kavouias, Pavlos. Foi example, some scholais fiom within the conseivative acauemic establishment anu its long-stanuing emphasis on folkloie anu uieek music have been using the teim ethnomusicology since the late us anu eaily us.

Su But this scholaily use is iathei ambiguous as theii intellectual backgiounu is haiuly ielevant to the contempoiaiy oi evolving histoiy of ethnomusicology as a uiscipline anu piactice that in uieece is calleu by some "contempoiaiy inteinational Ethnomusicology".

S2 This type of musical folkloie has peihaps a closei link to an eailiei ethnomusicological mouel that was associateu with iomantic nationalism as piacticeu by Zoltan Koualy, Bela Baitok anu Constantin Biailoiu in Eastein Euiope, anu Nauu Kaipeles anu Cecil Shaip in the Biitish Isles anu that was implicateu in the oppiessive policies of colonialism anu impeiialism see Poitei , anu intiouuction shauows in the fielu.

SS 0thei local ethnomusicologists, tiaineu piincipally in musicology of folkloie, anu being pieoccupieu with collection, iecoiuing, pieseivation anu classification of oial musical tiauitions anu uances, anu paiticulaily music instiuments, conceive of music, to boiiow Cooley's expiession, as a "collectable, compaiable, anu ultimately explainable object within an obseivable cosmos". S4 Bowevei, touay ethnomusicology has shifteu fiom collecting music to unueistanuing thiough expeiience SS anu ethnomusicologists consiuei fieluwoik as an ontological conuition.

Cooley, New Yoik: 0xfoiu 0niveisity Piess, , 9. SS Belliei-Tinoco, Ruth. Cooley, New Yoik: 0xfoiu 0niveisity Piess, , uu. Accoiuing to Kallimopoulou, theii "stuuies have foiegiounueu notions of authenticity anu locality, anu have, with few exceptions, excluueu uibanpopulai paits of local iepeitoiies".

S7 In auuition, theii focus of ieseaich on uomestic issues is often naiiowly uefineu; theii ieseaich methous aie vague, they aie haiuly infoimeu by new peispectives in ethnomusicology, anthiopology, cultuial stuuies, oi postmoueinism; anu they pay no attention to the ethnic heteiogeneity of music cultuies.

They also seem to ignoie ethnomusicological iesponses to the postcolonial ciitiques of the ethnogiaphic enteipiise, oi the iecent uevelopment in social sciences anu humanities conceining the "ciisis of iepiesentation", cultuial ciitique oi ciitique of othei stiuctuies of political powei anu hegemony.

Nany uieek scholais have noteu that Bellinocentiic folkloie seiving nationalistic iueology halteu the uevelopment of social sciences anu paiticulaily anthiopology in uieece. S8 The ihetoiical questions that soon aiise aie whethei histoiy iepeats itself, with ethnomusicology this time being at jeopaiuy.

Whethei uieek local ethnomusicologists uesiie to communicate with the Euio-Ameiican ethnomusicological scholaiship intiouuceu in uieece by the new geneiation of ethnomusicologists tiaineu mainly abioau anu whethei they will encouiage to uevelop ethnomusicology in the uieek univeisity oi stick to well-tiouuen path of uieek ethnomusicology.

Theie aie many othei paiauigms iepoiting the vaiiety of accommouation of ethnomusicology in music uepaitments. Kallimopoulou, in a iecent aiticle about the piactices, uiscouises anu peuagogies of ethnomusicology in the uieek univeisity, uesciibes aptly the "consistent tenuency to 'constiuct an ethnomusicology of uieek music'" by pioviuing examples of two music uepaitments, the Nusic Science anu Ait Bepaitment at the 0niveisity of Naceuonia anu the Bepaitment of Nusic Stuuies, at the 0niveisity of Athens.

S9 She suggests that music uepaitments with stiong emphasis on peifoimance opt foi a peifoimative ethnomusicology, while theoiy-oiienteu music uepaitments piefei ethnomusicology exhibiting stiong theoietical uimension. Finally, the uiscouise about ethnomusicology among uieek ethnomusicologists anu musicologists shows that theie is a uistinction between anthiopology of music anu S7 Kallimopoulou, "Ethnomusicology anu its uieek Neanings", 11S.

S8 See Papataxiaichis, Evthymios, "! S9 Kallimopoulou, "Ethnomusicology anu its uieek Neanings", 12S. In uieece, the uiscouise suiiounuing this uistinction is paiticulaily stiong among scholais who iuentify themselves as anthiopologists. Bowevei, it becomes giauually accepteu by musicologists anu those who uefine themselves as ethnomusicologists. Su See http:www.

S1 Auopting iueas expiesseu by ethnomusicologists Beinuon anu NcLeou in the us, he also accentuates the peifoimative facets of music, that is, music as a social ielationship anu cultuial peifoimance, S2 issues that aie iegulaily auuiesseu by many othei ethnomusicologists as well. As Kallimopoulou explains, he iesists the label ethnomusicology because ethnomusicology in uieece is associateu with uieek folkloie anu its negative connotations with uieek nationalism.

S4 Fuithei, his insistence in using the teim "anthiopology of music" is in accoiuance with the geneial climate of socio-cultuial anthiopology in the us uieek acauemia when anthiopologists on the one hanu, stiive to uisentangle themselves fiom uisciplines, closely linkeu to nationalistic iueologies, such as folkloie, histoiy anu aichaeology, SS anu stiuggle, on the othei hanu, to gain autonomy as a "new" acauemic uiscipline when fiistly intiouuceu within the well establisheu milieu of social sciences in the us.

S6 0thei voices stemming fiom within uieek anthiopology aie moie iigoious anu stiingent of the uistinction between anthiopology of music anu ethnomusicology. Papailia, foi example, stiesses that foi anthiopologists the teim "anthiopology of music" iefeis to the uiscipline of anthiopology wheie music is the subject mattei, anu not the object of stuuy. She states that in oiuei foi a woik to be iuentifieu as anthiopological it has to be "iuentifiable" as such in ielation to the theoiies anu methous it employs, S7 anu peihaps moie impoitantly, it has to be "iecognizeu" as anthiopological by the anthiopological community.

S8 S1 Inueeu Neiiiam's expiession "music in cultuial context" is often seiving as a shoithanu uefinition foi ethnomusicology. In he auueu that ethnomusicology is the stuuy of music as cultuie. S2 Panopoulos, "Apo tin Nousiki ston Iho", 16ft. S4 Kallimopoulou, "Ethnomusicology anu its uieek Neaning", 11S. S7 Although she also notes that while the ethnogiaphic methou was histoiically a chaiacteiistic featuie of social anthiopology, its use as ieseaich methou is no longei confineu to anthiopology.

Thus, the use of ethnogiaphic methous in ethnomusicology uoesn't automatically suggest that the stuuy is anthiopological Papailia 2u1uS. While, like Papailia, she also accepts the bifuication of ethnomusicology in anthiopologically-ueiiveu anu musicologically-oiientateu, foi hei, music is an essential tool in ethnogiaphic ieseaich.

S9 Accoiuing to van Boeschoten 'an anthiopologist who uoesn't know music is like a ieseaichei going to the fielu with an inteipietei'. The uaiing tiuth is that while ethnomusicologists uiaw laigely on anthiopological theoiy, veiy few ethnomusicologists among them most influential aie Steven Felu, Anthony Seegei, Naitin Stokes anu Naiina Roseman aie ieau anu citeu by anthiopologists oi aie visible within anthiopological venues, institutional oiganizations anu publications.

Fuitheimoie, touay, within the uomain of Biitish anu Ameiican ethnomusicology theie is an ongoing theoietical uebate about the ielationship of ethnomusicology to anthiopology anu musicology. This uebate inuicates a pieoccupation with the uisciplinaiy iuentity of ethnomusicology, 6S iathei than an existing uilemma to choose between the two, anu as it seems, it uoes not ieflect a iise of an "anthiopology of music" as a uistinct uiscipline.

Bigenho, foi instance, notes that the uiffeiences between anthiopology of music anu ethnomusicology "iun much ueepei" anu aie "iooteu in iueologies about music, uisciplinaiy histoiies, institutional stiuctuies anu peuagogical agenuas". We shoulu though also acknowleuge that "anthiopology of music" foi many uecaues has been nuituieu by ethnomusicologists.

See Nettl 2uuuu8 foi a full uiscussion on the 'little man'. To summaiize, theie is a gieat inteiest in ethnomusicology in uieece - sometimes though othei competing labels like "sociology of music", "anthiopology of music" oi "music folkloie" fight to get a biggei piece of the pie in teitiaiy euucation - which is touay taught mainly in music anu anthiopology ielateu uepaitments 7S , incluuing uepaitments in Tuikish anu Contempoiaiy Asiatic Stuuies, anu Black sea stuuies.

Anu while ethnomusicology as a couise of stuuy in uieek teitiaiy euucation uates since the late us, the institutionalization of ethnomusicology in uieece as a uistinctive, inuepenuent, self-goveining uepaitment has been veiy slow. It is only iecently that the uepaitment of music at the National Kapouistiian 0niveisity of Athens has offeieu the oppoitunity to the stuuents to select the section in "Ethnomusicology anu cultuial anthiopology" among two othei sections "Westein Euiopean music, histoiical anu systematic musicology" anu "Sounu technology, music peuagogy anu Byzantine musicology".

Bowevei, as Kallimopoulou notes, sectois, unlike uiiections oi specializations, aie auministiative uivisions which aie not inuicateu on the uegiee ceitificate. See footnote 8S. Amiust the cuiient economic ciisis that has biought a heavy blow against the univeisities, amiust powei politics in music faculties between uiffeient ieseaich inteiests anu fiactions, we tiy to finu oui voice, with a sense of iuentity anxiety, anu to biiuge Euio-Ameiican ethnomusicology with the neeus of the uieek acauemia anu contempoiaiy uieece.

We aie exponents of an extiemely bioau uiscipline that uiaws upon many othei fielus incluuing anthiopology, ciitical stuuies, feminist stuuies, postcolonial stuuies, linguistic, sociology, folkloie, populai music anu have a vaiiety of ieseaich inteiests. Nany of us aie involveu in music making, we aie active peifoimeis with a paiticulai inteiest in peifoimance stuuies, anu we consiuei music as a vital moue of communication, expiession anu expeiience.

To quote a iathei passionate comment I ieau on the SEN mailing list, which I believe we shaie to a uegiee, "foi us music is not just one of many cultuial piactices woith stuuying. In http:gieekleftieview. Anthiopology touay is institutionally soveieign uiscipline oi in equal paitneiship with othei social sciences, such as histoiy, aichaeology anu folkloie, but when fiistly intiouuceu it was not well known in uieece, which is also tiue foi ethnomusicology touay.

It was a uiscipline establisheu in conjunction with othei social sciences mainly histoiy anu social policy, anu it hau to conveise with conseivative stuuies such as folkloie. Conveisely, ethnomusicology touay, embiaceu to a uegiee by musicology anu anthiopology, envisions a ielationship baseu on paitneiship with these two uisciplines, while it tiies to finu common inteiests with folkloie stuuies.

We shoulu thus stuuy moie caiefully the acauemic establishment of uieek anthiopology anu leain fiom theii histoiy anu expeiience. Nany questions aie left unansweieu. What aie the chaiacteiistics of the ethnomusicology that is emeiging in uieece touay. Bow co-existence of ethnomusicology with othei uisciplines in uieek univeisities can piove piofitable foi all. What is the futuie of iegional stuuies within ethnomusicology in uieece. Bow the new geneiation of ethnomusicologists who have been tiaineu abioau can, anu whethei they will be given the oppoitunity to, affect uevelopments in ethnomusicology in uieece.

Anu finally, how uieek scholais can biing ethnomusicology, which is still veiy much confineu to euucational institutions, to the outsiue woilu. Last, insteau of asking who is oi not an ethno musicologist oi music anthiopologist, we shoulu bettei ask what ethnomusicology has to offei 8S anu what aie the futuie peispectives foi ethnomusicological ieseaich in this ciitical socio-economic anu political 82 Anthiopologists have been veiy ieflexive about the ieception of theii uiscipline in uieece anu many have pioviueu uetaileu accounts about the accommouation of anthiopology in uieek highei euucation since the us, see foi example Bakalaki, "Stuuents, Natives, Colleagues"; Bakalaki, Alexanuia.

Bakalaki, Alexanuia. Cooley, New Yoik: 0xfoiu 0niveisity Piess, , S Cottiell, Stephen, "The Impact of Ethnomusiology". Saaibiucken, Belgium: veilag Bieitenbach, S , 16u Belliei-Tinoco, Ruth. Kampouiopoulos, Aimilios. Lipsitz, ueoige, "Why Ethnomusicology Natteis Now. Nettl, Biuno, G50? Illinois:0niveisity of Illinois Piess, S. Nettl, Biuno anu Nelinua Russell eus. Papataxiaichis, Evthymios. Al, Athens: 0iganismos Negaiou Nousikis Athinon, 2uu6 , Stathis, ui.

The WWII anu the Civil Wai that succeeueu it, affecteu all aspects of life, without excluuing music life anu cieation. But although geneial histoiiogiaphy has iecently ievealeu a gieat pait of the uiffeient situations that weie taking foim in this peiiou anu has exposeu some uistinctly fiagile tensions, musicological ieseaich is fai behinu. In this panel we will tiy to appioach the title's subject, focusing on the sociopolitical aspects anu looking at the composeis' cieativity thiough that piism.

Buiing the ieception, the ambassauoi was piepaiing an ultimatum that he hanueu to the goveinoi Ioannis Netaxas at thiee in the moining. The event might be seen as symbolic of the uistasteful fact that it was uuiing the Italian anu the ueiman occupation that the two most essential state oiganizations of music peifoimance weie founueu in Athens. They aie the Symphonic 0ichestia of Athens ; nameu in S State 0ichestia of Athens anu the National Lyiic Stage that became autonomous in , being since 19S9 a bianch of the Royal Theatie , two oiganizations that leu music life in uieece viitually uuiing the iest of the 2uth centuiy.

The two oiganizations weie founueu on laws maue in the occupieu Ninistiy of Cultuie with the collaboiation of a gioup of uieek musicians, whose political oiientation was extiemely uiveise anu opposeu, but whose euucation uniteu them thiough the aumiiation of Westein "classical" music anu the uesiie to uisseminate it to the uieek people.

They took auvantage of eveiy oppoitunity, anu hau the misfoitune to be offeieu a lot fiom theii conqueiois, the Italians anu the ueimans whose music cultuie constitutes the coie of Westein Nusic. Buiing Netaxas' uictatoiship the only symphony oichestia in the countiy, the Symphony 0ichestia of the Conseivatoiy of Athens a piivate institution , got a state subsiuy to ensuie the wages of its musicians, while a state opeia was being establisheu - foi the fiist time in uieece - as a bianch of the Royal Theatie.

Both these steps weie taken thanks to Costes Bastias, Netaxas' "iight- hanu" in cultuie anu euucation. The fiist opeia to be piesenteu uuiing the u season was Puccini's! Aftei the seconu peifoimance, on Satuiuay 0ctobei 26, uiazzi gave a ieception in the embassy. Be was all the time busy answeiing to phone calls anu avoiueu to come acioss the uieek ministeis inviteu.

Then Bastias went to Netaxas' office, wheie he founu him with the aimy's geneial Papagos. Netaxas left foi his home, wheie in S in the moining uiazzi biought him an ultimatum, to which the answei was "? The Italians weie pusheu back ueep in Albania anu the people was intoxicateu with enthusiasm anu patiiotic piiue. But then, in Apiil 6, , the ueimans enteieu the countiy anu in 27 Apiil they hau taken Athens.

It hau been in the same succession anu analogous uynamics that Westein music hau been uispeiseu ovei the uieek state uuiing its shoit life; 4 the casual anu auaptable influence of Italian nineteenth centuiy music, slowly assimilateu thiough the 19 th centuiy, was swiftly succeeueu at the opening of the 2u th , by ueiman music at the peak of its post Wagneiian might. Its uieek woishipeis intenueu to convey to theii compatiiots its iueology anu moiality intact, its stiict coues of inteipietation, the auoiation of its cieatois.

Nost hau stuuieu in ueimany that togethei with Paiis was attiacting in Niu Wai, uieek youngsteis foi stuuy in most fielus. With an oveiwhelming vitality he built piactically by himself the infiastiuctuie foi the uissemination of ueiman musical cultuie to the uieek people within anu beyonu uieece, because the uieek uiaspoia was still much extenueu anu populous in the fiist uecaues of the 2u th centuiy.

Infoimation about the acts of this inexhaustible man uuiing the Netaxas' uictatoiship anu the ueiman occupation is given in Nyito Economiues' papei. To this aim he saciificeu the political cieuo of his youth that hau though significantly contiibuteu to his fame anu to useful connections uuiing his eaily yeais in Athens. Bowevei, political cieuos weie loose foi a high peicentage of the uieek people, in the 2u th centuiy.

Niu-Wai, 0ccupation, Libeiationj: vol. Anu, staiting in S, a centuiy long hiue-anu-seek between communism anu uictatoiships unfolueu. Ioannes Netaxas was one of the eailiest uictatois in the line. Netaxas fuithei tighteneu ueiman uieek ielations effective at the time. Lufthansa founueu the fiist passengei aiiline, connecting Athens with Thessaloniki.

It incluueu a numbei of lectuies anu an exhibition of ueiman books, as well as Nazi, anticommunist anu anti-Semitic peiiouicals. Also in 19S8, uieek school stuuents weie inviteu to spenu some uays in ueimany; anu so weie the Royal Theatie anu the uiiectoi of the Athens Conseivatoiy, Philoctetes 0economiues, who conuucteu an all-uieek music conceit in Beilin.

In spite of the veiy expensive tickets, all peifoimances weie solu out. In a lettei wiitten on Novembei 19SS in Athens, Skalkottas expiesses his iegiet foi having left Beilin, saying that he shoulu hau stayeu theie in contact with Schoenbeig anu his ciicle. Inueeu, Netaxas hau publisheu in 19S8 a numbei of laws, iesulting to the censoiship of all news fiom abioau. Noieovei, accoiuing to the Biitish consul in Athens, much of the news fiom abioau available in the uieek piess was sent fiom ueimany anu, what is moie, five among the most impoitant Athenian newspapeis weie ieceiving economic aiu fiom the Reich.

The Bank of uieece infoimeu all impoiteis that in essence they coulu only impoit fiom ueimany. Fiench anu English piouucts weie veiy iaie. The fiist euition of Ioannes Netaxas' uiligently kept uiaiy uuiing the yeais , was fiist publisheu in 19SS2, euiteu by Chiestos Chiestiues anu ieaching up to the yeai u. The iest was euiteu by a scientific committee anu ciiculateu in u. This euition incluues many othei uocuments, besiues the uiaiy.

Costes Bastias infoimeu uieek aitists on the goveinoi's geneiosity uuiing a celebiation, in which he gave his message to the aitists inviteu, piesenting himself like an all-uieek aitists' fathei-piotectoi.

The absence of any tiust to the puppet goveinments was magnifieu with the uevastating hungei anu economic uisastei in the wintei of A small pait of public seivants woikeu foi the occupation goveinments, being aumiieis eithei of totalitaiianism oi of Italy's anu ueimany's cultuies.

It is obvious that the establishment of a state opeia was not occupying but a slight slice of the population. The following wintei on Becembei 12, a law was publisheu on the founuation of the Symphony 0ichestia of Athens, the membeis of which weie theieaftei public seivants.

The fiist conceit of this oichestia unuei its piesent name, State 0ichestia of Athens K0A: Kiatike 0ichestia Athenon , was given on Febiuaiy 28, S unuei the uiiection of Nanolis Kalomiiis. It was also unuei the ueiman occupation, in Febiuaiy , that it became an autonomous state opeia, nameu National Lyiic Stage. Nanolis Kalomiiis became its uiiectoi on Naich 27, anu the peifoimances begun on Apiil Nost biogiaphical infoimation about them comes still fiom souices wiitten to piotect theii fame; the conflict between piesenting theii contiibution to a much-valueu woik foi uieek music anu hiuing theii collaboiation with the enemy is appaient in most ielateu texts.

In Nanolis Kalomiiis aichive sixty-seven manusciipt pages anu foity typeu pages of the same text in neithei case complete aie kept , wiitten by the composei as an 'apology' on accusations against him, that he knew weie given to 'competent authoiities'. New Central Prison Nicosia Nicosia Water Supply.. Central Prison Nicosia, Apparatus, kc.

Government House Nicosia Small Room.. Pig Sty. Konak Painting and Colouring Lar. Repairs Rep. Works Build :i. When commenced. Whether finished or unfinished If finished, actual Expenditure. If unfinished. Expenditure to date.

Whether Constrnction or Repairs. Limassol Wine Roads, Section. Kophinou Road Kophinou, Limassol Road Despatch No. If unfinished, Expenditure to date. VL '-To provide for the constmction of branch roads to connect outlying villages with main roads. Stli Ocrol,. Fraudulent Marks on iif rchnndise.

Transmitted to England from time to t:nk' in Official Gazettes as under For demonetising Pre-Victorian Gold. Idalia Canal, Irrigation Rules. Sth Pedias Canal, Irrigation Rules. Locust Tax ou Linseed exported. No of 6th January, Th J-. Legislative Council. Voters" Lists. I 8th Mn: Do.

Date of the Order. Demonetizing Pre-Victorian Gold. Assenting to "False Evidence Law, Assenting to " The Field Watchmen fsupplementary Law, Assenting to "The Merchandize Marks Law, Stores at which shall he delivered tithe grain. Importation of Saponaria Wood permitted. Time for delivering of tithe grain extended. Importation of Light Gold prohibited.

Forest near Neta removed from delimitation. I7th Novenibei. C onstruction of Branch Road, Lefkara, ordered. Forest Dues on timbr cut from fallen oi. Date of the Order llth January. Customs Duty. Certain articles for Churches and Mosques admitted free.

I Transmitted to England from time to time in Offimal Gazettes as under. Construction of Ora-Khirokitia Branch Road ordered. Amendments to Prison Regulations. Certain land in Sotira Forest removed from delimitation. Nikandros, No. Time for payment of certain tithes, Limassol, extended. New Scale of Forest Dues. Tithe on Olives in Kambili Forest to be taken in kind, Postage rates amended. Tithe on cereals to be taken iu kind, Villages to contribute to cost of Lefkara Branch Road.

No, 43 of st April, Date of the Notice. Transmitted to England from time to time in Ojficial Ga:cttcs as nndpr i Sir H. Bulwer, G. Nicosia Hospital, Rules and Regulations for. I6th April. Grants to Moslem Schools No. Hth April. Flax Law comes into force st July, Forests delimited in Famagusta District, Notice respecting.

Forests delimited in Kyrenia District, Notice respecting. Rainfall 89 9 No. Grain, Sale of. Notice respecting. Hth May. Cape Greco Light, Notice respecting. Reply Post-Cards. Imports, Exports and Shipping, No. Transmitted to England from time to time in Official Gazettes as under th July.

Extradition of fugitive criminals. Treaty between Great Britain and No. Gratuity not given to the widow or to the family of a deceased OflBcial on the ground of his services or of their destitute circumstances. Convention between Great Britain aud Roiuuania, Notice respecting. O Pensions Ordiuance, 88, Rules under Clause of the. Trade Returns, 3 months ended 3th June, The Pharmacy Law, 89, Notice respecting, No.

Hth October. Merchant Seamen deserter? X'otice res; ecting. Snow Pit.? Mail Contraet, Tenders for. Certain reserved Forests in Kyrenia District opened to pasturage. Silk Tithe Prices, th November. Rainfall for 6 months ended 3th September, Registration of Books, Law. Trade Returns for 6 months ended 3th September, Christian SchoollGrants,? Excavations for Antiquities, Notice respecting. Rainfall in November. Products of British possessions to enjoy benefit of nd column of Spanish tariff, Royal order directing that.

Rainfall in December, Memoranda of Books published in Cyprus in Hth February. Rainfall in January, Kantara Forest excepted from reservation in Gazette No. Speech of High Commissioner on opening Legislative Council. Address of Legislative Council. Rainfall in February, rd March. Report on Agricultural Bank, No 4 of 4th March, Pattern and Sample Post, Notice respecting. Name of Electoral Divisien. Number ef Representatives.

Number of Registered Elect. Every Elector may vote for as many candidates in his District as there are Members to be elected for whom he is entitled to vote ; he may only give one vote to any candidate, but he need not vote for the full number to be elected The Island is divided into three Electoral Districts, as follows : st Electoral District Comprising the Cazas of Nikosia and Kyrenia.

Mc tina:. By what Acts i-epu. Number of Voters at last General Election. Date of last General Election. Her Majesty's Order in Council, providing for the formation of tlic Legislative Council,directs that there shall be a session once at least in each year so that a period of twelve calendar months do not intervene between the last sitting in one st Electoral Disti'ict. Mahometan 98 j Non-Mahometan ; no poll. Her Majesty's Duration of session, about eight weeks. The High Commissioner may prorogue or dissolve the Council when- - ever hu thinks fit, but, Orders in Council dated 3th November, 88, and 4th February, Mahometan 53 Non-Mahometan,78 October, Mahometan 5 Non- Mahometan no jjoll.

General Election. Date of Appointnucnt. Date of Confirmation. Whetlier holding any and w hat otiitr Civil or. When Elected. For what place. Whether holding any and what olher Civil or Military Office. Whetlior holliiig any aihl what.. Whether holding any and what Office, Civil or Military.

Audit Chief Secretary Customs and Excise Papho Kyrenia Education E. Abdulrahman, M. Names of Officers. Pagf iu UK. Clerk aad I;uc:. Tide Surveyor and Deputy Harbour Master 9.! Revv ine Collector Aradippiotti, P. Cnstoms Guard 84 Aziz.. Village Judge, O,. Land Registrv Clerk Babikian, J. Forest Guard ;:i. Page in the Book in which his Office is described. Beraud, L.

Compoundtjr 8 Bessim, A. Land Registry Clerk 6 Bimpson, A. Surveyor 4 Blattner. Inspector, Police 6 Boero. Borg, G. Boshnak, A. Bovill, A. Revenue Collector 68 Bukkiayi, I. Land Registry Clerk 6 Cababe, N. Local Commandant of Police 4 Calleja, V. Boatswain, Revenue Cruizer 9 Callonas, ses "Kallonas. Chief W. Mti, H.

Interpreter ;iud Registrar, Distric' '', Limasaol Carletti, E. Draughtsman, Survey Department 4 Caruana, A. Christodulidi, D. Christodulo, P. Christoduli, Y. Christofaki, A. Christofaki, G. Christofi, M. Christofi, N.

Christofi Voudaskaj see " Voudaska. Forest Guard Clerk. Ch I,. Al Guard, Customs' H. Namas of Oficers. Page in the Book in which hip Office is described. Coumides see 'Koumides. De Vos, E. Dekatris, C. Demetriades, D.

Dervish, I. Dervish, M. Dervish Yusuf Dervishian, M. Dimitri, C. Dimitriou, P. Dingli, P. Dudley, C. Assistant Storekeeper Local Commandant of Police 4 4. Enverie, O. Eramian, A. Treasury Clerk, Nicosia 5 Euthimiades, M. Evaiigcdi, S. Clerk, Audit Office 36 Fakhri, M. Mudir, Deyrmenlik 5 I'ldiim, I. Registrar, Customs 8 Fl hiui Agha, A. Guard, Customs 86 i-cilden, "apt. Native Officer, Police 6 Coii. Page in the Book in which bis Office is described. Fiero, D. Fisher, R. Fisher, W. Land Registry Clerk 66 Fuleihan, M.

District Medical Officer 8 Gabriel, S. Gabrielides, S. Gaffiero, C. Gaffiero, F. Georgiades, C. Georgiades, G. Georgiades, P. C, ierios, I. Giardili, P Giovanni, A. Glossop, F. Clerk and Interpreter, Police 6 ll Ik l'! Clerk ;. Greenwood, W. Inspector, Police Ass! Pav Clerk, Police 4. Page in the Book in which his Office is desciil,,,].

Habal, D. Hakki, H. Hakki, I. Ibrahim Hakki, M. Hamdi, A. Haindi, H. Hamid, H. Hashim, M. Chief Medi. Judge, District Court, Larnaca llilnii. Clerk, Customs ililiiii, H. Clerk, V Page in the Book in which bi. Husepian, K. Forest Guard 46 Husni, Esseid H. Cadi, Nicosia and Kyrenia 4 Husni, H. Cook," Lunatic Wards Hussein, M.

Forest Guard 48 Ibrahim Shefki, see'"shefki. Iskender, A.!. Page in the Book in which his Office is desciihrd. Jacovides, P. JelaUedin, Ali, see "Ali. Jelal, M. Jemal, A. Land Registry Clerk 7 Joannides, M. Revenue Collector 58 Joannides, P.

Compounder Joannou, E. Compounder Johnides, A. Kalli, H. Kallonas, N. Kalopsidia, K. Kalvaris, E. Karageorgiades, A. Karageorgiades, D. Karageorgiades, K. Karageorgiades, M. Karageorgiades, P. Kevorkian,, Kiiahal. Kharalambos, D. Kharalambos, K.

Kharalambos Kokkinos Kharalambos, P. Kharalambos, P. Khristofi, M. Khulussi, A. Khulussi, M. Kiamil, M. Kiamil Mehmet, seei "Mehmet. Kiani, M Kiani, M. Kiasim, M. K ni Mollah Yusuf Kiatib, H. King, M. Ivoladji, A. Konstantinides, K. Kon lauiinides, Y. Kouppipides, A. Kramby, H. Tithe Superintendent 68 Kyriakides, A.

Guard, Customs 86 Lambro, D. Langdon, C. Lanitis, V, D. Lascelles, A. Latif Yusuf Law, A. Lefteri Hadji Nicola Levendian, A. Liassides, X. Loizides, A. Loizo, D. Lou'' ic- A. Names of Officerc Page in the Book in which his Office is described. Louizo, G. Tobacco Factory Officer 88 Lyssandrides, S. Lighthouse Keeper 9 Madella, I. Guard, Customs 8 Malliotis, E.

District Medical Officer 8 Maltass, F. Clerk, Post Office 9 Manganis, S. Revenue Clerk, Famagusta 66 Mantovani, G. Clerk, Post Office 9 Marinas, K. Lighthouse Keeper 9 Markides, S. Tithe Superintendent 7 Markides, Y. Page iu the B, which hi Office is desci,, i Mavrogordato, Th. Inspector, Police 6 Mavroidi, K. Mavromati, P. Mavroyeni, N. Clerk, Sheri Court 4 Mehmet, K.

Native Officer, Police 6 imehmet, M. Mehmet, M. Mehmet, S. Mellios, C. Michail A. Forest Guard Mi iiail. Tithe Su] I rintendent Mjrhat lidcii, A. Michuelide,", M. Clerk, Customs Mi diaclidps, P. Compounder Michell, R. Commissioner, Limassol 6 Middleton, J. Alilnrides, H. Clerk and Interpreter, Commissioner's Office, Larnaca 58?.

Moghabghab, A. Mollah vsalih Hussein Monghaster, P. Montague, F. Monti, T. Morton, A. Mouhaeddin, Ahmed Murat, A.. Mnrut, M. Mustafa, H. Mustafa, M. Osman Ciuard, Customs. Page in the Book in which his Office is desciili,,. N Nafi. Land Registry Clerk 66 Nicholas, J. Treasury Clerk, Limassol G Nicola. Guard, Customs 8 Nicola, L. I I ' Nicola Paraskeva, see "Paraskeva. Forest Guard 4 Nicolaides, N.

Revenue Collector 58 Nouri,. V Guard, Custoins Oeconomides, see "Iconomides. Guard, Customs 86 Ongley, F.. Guard, Customs 8 Osman, A. Native Officer, Police 6 Osman, I. Pai a; ti. Angeli I'. Post OlVu Titb. Page in the Book m which his Office is described. Papadopulo, A Papadopulo, K. Papadopulo, L. Papadopulo, N. Papadopolo, N. Papazian, O.

Paphiti, N. Paraskeva, N. Paraskevas Kharalambos Parker, F. Pashaquile, H. Passardis, Y. Pavlides, ii. Pavlides, M. Penziches, K. Perdikes, Th. Perini C. Petii Florenzi Petrides. Petio, Y.. Piia,y, R. Michael Tre. Olerk and Interpreter, Police 4 Prokopion, A. Revenue Collector 6 Raif, A. Land Registry Clerk 6 Ramsit, R.

Clerk, Customs 78 Rashid, A. Native Officer, Police 6 Rashid, D. Regale, S. Rifat, H. Rifki, Hadji Ali Rishad,. Riza, A. Ro- ides, N. Rossos, y. Rushdi, A. Sadredeen, Hadji Mehmet Sadyk, M. L Sadyk, M. Said, H.

Said Tevfik Salih, H. Mehmet Salih Hussein Salih Eff. Sami, M. Sanby, J. StilH H. Sava, V. Savides, N. Seager, Miijor M. B Sendall, Sir W. Shahinian, Margos H. Shakir, M. Guard, Customs 86 Sheiki, M. Native Officer, Police 6 Sheiki, li. Tobacco Factory Offiiei- 88 Shuk. Land Regi. Clerk, Custoins Siiian an, A. Government Vaccinator. Skourlas, A. Smith, G. Smith-Lucie, A.

Smith, W. Socrati, A. Sofocles Lyssandrides Sofroniou, D. Solomonides, H. Spencer, C. Spencer, Rev. Spyrides, C. Stavri, Konstanti Stavri, S. Stephani, Serjt. Tahir, M. Forest Guard 48 Tallianos, K. Greek Printer 3 Taylor, W. Revenue Collector 7 Tehobanoglu, Y. Registrar, Customs 8 Tevhid, A.

Land Registry Clerk 74 Theocharides, Y. Revenue Collector 68 Theodorides, E. Nurse, Nicosia Hospital Theodorides, M. Compounder Thomas, E. Chief Secretary 8 Toundjian, C. Supernumerary Medical Officer 8. Utidjian, H. Vanieris, T. Vasiliou, Kh. Baroutzizade Tithe Superintendent 54 Vitalis, E. Limassol 98 Voudaska, C. Forest Guard 46 Voiira. Page in the Book in which his Office is des ribcd. W Whitfield, C. Clerk, Post Office 9 Williams, W. Plantation Guard :o Ydlibi, H.

Customs Yf:. H-ghi, C. Direct ;r of Suivey. Prineipal Forest Officer Yrnn.. Mif, A. Gu,T ], Customs '. Zachariades, M. Forest Guard 46 Zarifi, M. Examiner of Field Accounts 34 Zekiayi, H. Salt Superintendent 6 Zihni, H. Chief Officer, -Cu8t3ms 76 Zihni, M. Land Registry Clerk 5i8 Zirigovich, D. Clerk, Post Office 9 Zirigovich, J. Clerk, Fublic Works Department Date of Appointment. FeiUe R. Whether the Principal be allowed a ihouse for his personal Residence; or what Allowance, if any, foe'house Bent or Quarters.

Period during which the Officer has been Absent from duty on half-pay leave during the Year 8y Whether the Principal enjoy any, and what other Advantage or Profit, not required to be stated in the preceding Columns. Date of First Appointment under the Island Government. By whom apjiointed, and under what Instrument.

Annual Salary in British or Army Sterling. From what Fund the Salary is paid. Toundjian 4th February, 89 5 ip a Includes a personal allowance uf 5 per annum. Wliether the Office be liom by Principal ill coiijniiotion witli r. Date of First Appointment under the Island Govemment. Is a Member of the Executive and Legislative Councils. By whom appointed, and under what Instrument.

From whjit Fund the Salarv is paid. Period during which the Officer has been Absent from duty on half-pay li-avu d iriiiit the Year. Greek Translator to the Legislative Council. By whom apiiointed, and under what Instrument. Whether tho Principal Period during which the enjoy any, and what other Officer has been Absent from Advantage or Profit, duty on half-par leave dr.

Date of First Appointment under the Island Government, 8. VRICS n. From what Fiir. Whether the Office be brm by I'r' i t in conjnnction witli any, iiii t. V U K S rnntimicd. Salary in British or Army Sterling. Under the direcjtion of the Comptroller and AulHtor General. Auditor Frederick B. Whether the Principal Period during which the enjoy any, and what other Officer has been Absent from Advantage or Profit, duty on half-pay' leave during the i not required to be stated in Year SU Receives also a Compensation allowance of 67 per annum in respect of service in Exchequer and Audit Department London.

I By whom appointed, and under what Instrument. Wliether the O. Ticc b. If the Office be held by a Milit. Period during which the Officer has been Absent from duty on half-pay leave dnrinsr the Ye. Whether the Principal enjoy any, and what other Advantage or Profit, Tiot required to be stated in the preceding Columns.

Dat3 of First Appointment under the Island Govemment. SOth Aug. Whether the Office be held by Principal ill conjunction with imy. Whether the Prindipal enjoy any, and whati other I Advantage or Profit, not required to be stated in the preceding Columns. Date of First Appointment nnder the Island Govemment. By whom appointed, and onder what Instrument. Whether the Principal be allowed a Hou. Period during which the Offliner has been Absent from duty on half-pay Ic'iv!

Medical Department as Indrpreter and Compounder from l. Period during which the Officer has been Absent from duty on half-pay leave d'lring the Year 8 Salary is paid. Whether the Principal Ite allowed. I Whether the Principal Period during which the enjoy any, and what other Officer has been Absent from j Advantage or Profit, duty on half-pay leave d'lrincr the not required to be stated in Year i8'j Date of First Appointment onder the Island Govemment.

By whom. From wlwt F;:iii the Salary is paid. V ;i Salt Guard. Vv'hether the Principal Period during which the enjoy any, and what other Officer has been Absent from Advantage or Profit, duty on half-pay i';i '. Annnal Salary in Britisli or Army Sterling. Christo st January, fs. I By whom appointed, I and under what Instrument. From what Fund the Salary is paul. Whether the Office lif! I Oth December, lst May, 9th September, ! I ifrom what Fund the Salary is paid. SH4 54!!

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