As the first paper to analyze the types of bets placed on events and outcomes the results support the notion that wagering is an entertainment activity, and the majority of customers are motivated by factors other than simply winning money. Wagering operators have particularly targeted sports and racing fans as potential customers and advertising and marketing associated with both major and minor teams and events is now highly prominent in markets where this is permitted Lamont et al.
Marketing efforts have increased awareness of how and where to place bets online, and, coupled with offers of free bets and bonus credits for signing-up, making deposits, and referring friends, these strategies have contributed in the growth in participation and expenditure with online wagering operators.
However, ultimately the convenience and easy accessibility of online wagering is reportedly the key driver in customer uptake and participation in this mode of betting Gainsbury et al. The rapid increase in online betting has caused some unease among stakeholders, including governments, sporting organisations, and community groups Gainsbury and Wood Central concerns focus on the impact of the availability and accessibility of Internet gambling on vulnerable populations, including young people and problem gamblers, the prevention and detection of fraud and money laundering through online websites, and the ability to appropriately regulate an online activity across border states Department of Broadband, Communication and the Digital Economy ; European Commission ; Gainsbury Further concerns have also been raised regarding the importance of safe-guarding the integrity of sports and preventing match-fixing and corruption Department of Broadband, Communication and the Digital Economy ; European Commission ; Gainsbury However, little is known about online betting behaviour, which makes it difficult to create appropriate policies and practices to regulate this activity.
The prohibition of certain types of wagering or placement of strict restrictions and requirements on wagering operators may have the unintended effect of stimulating illegal gambling, including offshore gambling sites.
The difficulty in successfully prohibiting offshore gambling and the importance of providing a safe, regulated environment for gamblers has been cited by the majority of international governments that have liberalised online gambling Gainsbury and Wood Further efforts are required to examine the use of online wagering sites to determine if restrictions are warranted and to guide appropriate policy, including consumer protection and responsible gambling requirements.
A greater understanding of online betting and how players typically engage in this activity would assist in guiding policy development European Commission The current study aims to provide insight into online wagering by conducting a longitudinal analysis of actual player behaviour with an Australian online bookmaker. Australians are among the most prolific gamblers in the world, with estimates forecasting total gambling expenditure will increase 3.
These figures are consistent with reports from major wagering operators indicating that Internet wagering revenue is increasing more rapidly than retail and telephone betting. In the third quarter of the financial year, wagering provider Tabcorp reported an increase of Internet gambling is prohibited in Australia, with the exception of online wagering and lottery provided by licensed operators. The most common advantages cited by players to explain the use of Internet gambling included the lack of travel needed, convenience and accessibility, the lack of crowds and unpleasant people, greater privacy and anonymity and greater physical comfort.
These results indicate that although they could bet in venues or via the telephone, an increasing proportion of bettors prefer to use the Internet. Previous research has had to rely on inaccurate self-reports of betting behaviour but the use of data from player account-based gambling has begun to make a substantial contribution to the understanding of gambling behaviour and player profiles Gainsbury Analysis of the betting patterns of 40, Internet sports gamblers that subscribed to a European wagering site in provides an insight into the typical behavioural patterns of these relatively early adopters of online gambling LaBrie et al.
Over an 8-month period the vast majority of fixed odds sports bettors appeared to bet in a relatively moderate fashion, placing an average of 2. A small proportion of bettors appear to be highly involved in terms of the amounts wagered or number of bets placed. An alternate explanation is that a small proportion of online bettors are more sophisticated and use resources and strategies to reduce their losses, who may also receive favourable odds and rebates from operators due to the size of their wagers.
The players studied were most likely to be young German men and given that the wagering analysed was done in the extent to which the results can be applied to other populations today is unclear. Furthermore, although fixed-odds and live-action bettors were compared, no analysis was conducted based on the types of bets made or events bet on, which may provide useful insights about player behaviour. A more recent analysis of player account data analysed the wagering activity of 11, customers of a large Australian totalisator wagering operator over a year period, from to Gainsbury et al.
On average, players were active for a period of 5. Although these results only represent bets placed with one operator, they provide valuable insight into typical betting patterns. However, without a detailed analysis of all player behaviour it is difficult to put these figures in context. The current study aimed to analyse player account data from an Australian corporate bookmaker. Investigation of online wagering patterns will further the understanding of how individuals wager online, including the types of bets placed and the outcomes of these.
This information can be used by stakeholders, including policy makers, who may be able to implement a more targeted approach relevant to this type of gambling. Given the few studies conducted examining online wagering, and that this is the first study to examine player account data from a corporate bookmaker, no specific hypotheses were formed. This study aimed to provide a descriptive outline of the types of bets made and the outcomes of bets and compare wins and losses and gambling outlay and returns.
These variables were chosen as the focus of this study as they were available in the dataset and have been examined in previous populations of online bettors so will contribute and extend the extant literature on this topic. An Australian corporate bookmaker, Betchoice now trading under the name Unibet provided a database of de-identified account information for research purposes.
Betchoice was formed in and licensed in the Northern Territory to provide online wagering in addition to telephone betting in The principle focus of Betchoice was providing bets on races as opposed to sports, although a wide variety of markets are available for customers. Bookmakers offer fixed-odds bets, the odds may change during the betting period, but the odds for each bet is determined at the time the bet is placed.
The dataset contains bets and transactions placed online through the Betchoice website and via telephone from January 1, until December 31, In total there were 3,, lines of information, including , payouts, , money transfers into and out of accounts, , bets between bookmakers, 21, cancelled, 6, bets unfinalised, rejected bets and 15 accepted bets that had not been completed.
When these were removed, there were 2,, completed bets from 12, different user accounts. The vast majority The dataset included a unique user identification number for each bet. No demographic data were available, so all analyses were conducted based on bets placed. Two variables were included in the dataset that recorded the size of the bet. One recorded the amount of money placed by the bettor bet outlay , while the second recorded the overall size of the bet, including any bonuses.
Where an analysis is reported below for bet outlay, the same analysis was tested for total bet size. The pattern of results was the same for bet outlay and total bet size for all analyses. All bets were recoded as either a win or a loss, based on the bet status variable. Wagering return was recorded by a separate variable, where a loss is recorded as negative total bet size, while a win is recorded as whatever the bettor won above their total bet size.
In some cases, despite the bet being recorded as a win, the gambling return was negative. The winning amount for multi bets was not present in the dataset and was estimated by multiplying the total bet outlay by the recorded dividend and subtracting the total bet outlay from the product.
To avoid undue influence of extreme values, bet outlay, total bet and gambling return variables were winsorised so that values beyond the 1st and 99th percentile were recoded as having the same value as that percentile. However, when minimums and maximums are reported, this refers to unwinsorised data. Due to the extremely large number of bets being analysed, almost all inferential statistical results were significant at an alpha of 0. Multi-bets were treated as a single bet and distinct from the other categories, even though there may have been some cross-over, for example with a multi-bet that consisted of legs that were all placed for a win.
The vast majority of bets There is no distinction in the data file between different types of horse racing harness, trots, etc. The second highest category was sports betting Thus, the vast majority When all forms of football were combined soccer, Rugby Union, Rugby League, Australian Rules, American football , they accounted for 6.
Football bets were largely accounted for my soccer, rugby league and Australian Rules and bets on non-football ball sports were most likely to be on basketball or tennis. In addition to the single sports bets, 1. Only bets 0. The types of bets with the highest losing percent of bets were multis Slightly more than half of both handicap and total bets were wins.
Mixed bets were the least successful This latter category consists mostly of election and social bets. Of the 2,, bets placed, 0. In terms of winsorised bet outlay, all bet types were significantly different from each other except for draw, multis and place, Brown-Forsythe F 8, The greatest bets were the more specialised handicap and total bets, and although these also had high levels of variation, the medians were still significantly higher than other bet types.
Bettors also wagered greater amounts on win and margin bets. Statistically significant differences were also found between the various bet types in terms of gambling return, Brown-Forsythe F 8, The greatest returns were for handicap and total bets, followed by place bets. When comparing the six categories racing, football, ball sports other than football, non-ball sports, mixed and other in terms of mean winsorised bet outlay, all were significantly different from each other except for racing and mixed bets, Brown-Forsythe F 5, The greatest bets were placed on novelty and non-football ball sports, followed by football, non-ball sports, and then mixed bets and racing.
Median bets are in a slightly different order, demonstrating the variance in results. Within non-football ball sports, the greatest best were placed on basketball, other ball sports, and tennis and within football, the greatest bets were placed on American Football, rugby union and Australian Rules. In terms of gambling return, novelty bets were significantly higher than all other bet types, whereas racing was significantly lower than non-ball sports and ball sports other than football.
Mixed bets and football bets were not significantly different to each other or racing, non-ball sports and ball sports other than football, Brown-Forsythe F 5, Within non-football ball sports, other ball sports, tennis and basketball had the greatest returns and within football, rugby union bets had the greatest return. Consistent with the aim of this paper, the betting patterns of gamblers using an online bookmaker have been described, based on a database of all bets placed in one calendar year.
Approximately half of all bets were placed for a win, which is similar to the results reported by another Australian betting operator, Tabcorp Masters This may indicate that bettors prefer simple, uncomplicated bets, and are more comfortable identifying just one potential winner. This may also be considered a bolder betting style, as opposed to bets each way, which reflect a more conservative, cautious, and risk-averse approach.
Place bets were more successful than win bets, both in terms of percentage of bets that win and in gambling return, although the latter could simply be due to larger bets being placed for wins. That a higher proportion of place bets were successful compared to wins may not be very surprising, given than there are more possible successful outcomes for place bets than for win bets.
Exotic bets and multi bets are relatively risky, as they require several predictions to be fulfilled, although, as a result they generally give a larger return if successful. As risk preferences and motivations for placing types of bets were not measured these hypotheses should be explored in subsequent research.
Given that the operator is predominantly a race betting specialist, it was not surprising that the vast majority of bets were on races. This is consistent with the Australian wagering market, which is dominated by race wagering, despite the rising popularity of sports betting.
Sports betting was dominated by ball sports and various codes of football, in particular soccer, rugby league and Australian Rules. However, this has largely been driven by the popularity of in-play betting, which is not permitted on regulated Australian wagering sites. The findings also likely reflect the greater consumer interest in and popularity of various sporting events. Slightly different results are found for watching sports on television, which is led by cricket, Australian Rules football, tennis, rugby league and the Melbourne Cup Roy Morgan The betting patterns are consistent with US research which suggests that betting trends follow popular sports spectatorship and bettors, like fans, appear to enjoy seeing the best teams and preferring games televised on major networks Paul and Weinback , The bookmaker analysed in the current study was not heavily advertising before or during the period analysed, so these results are unlikely to be influenced by marketing tied to sporting events.
It is possible that these findings support the notion that betting and watching sporting events are complimentary activities for most bettors, as opposed to betting being an independent activity related to maximising profitable returns Paul and Weinback However, as motivations for betting were not directly measured in the current research these hypothese require investigation in future studies. Overall, the majority of bets resulted in losses, which expected based on previous studies of wagering Gainsbury et al.
The results of this study may imply that the bookmaker studied is appropriately skilled in predicting the outcomes of events and exploiting this advantage by strategically setting odds that ensure that the majority of bets are lost, or at least return an affordable proportion of wagers to customers so that they continue betting over time, but are unlikely to make a profit.
This is consistent with previous research showing that the market for sports gambling is structured to allow bookmakers to achieve substantially high profits Levitt Furthermore, many large bets were placed, including risky multi bets, although the majority of bets were for reasonable amounts, depending on how many bets each customer made over a period of time.
This may reflect a tendency for customers to place larger bets with an online bookmaker than a totaliser agency. Given the complexity of this topic, an analysis of individual bettor behaviour is the subject of another paper. The most popular type of bet, to win, had a relatively high rate of losses and the lowest average gambling returns, which may be explained by the predominance of racing bets and the greater difficulty in picking one winner in a field with multiple contenders.
Alternatively, these bets may be more likely to be placed by less sophisticated customers who have a lower ability to accurately assess the relevant factors and pick the best event and winner to successfully back. For example, bettors have been shown to have a bias to bet on longshots in pari-mutuel horse-race betting Golec and Tamarkin ; Jullien and Salanie ; Vaughn Williams and Paton , which may also be true for fixed-odds betting.
Similarly, bettors have been shown to bet a disproportionate amount on home teams and underdogs Golec and Tamarkin ; Gray and Gray ; Paul and Weinbach , If odds are balanced, bettors should place bets evenly on each side or outcome, therefore, the outcomes of previous research may imply that bettors may be influenced by emotions and preferences when placing bets, rather than probability of economic outcomes.
Furthermore, Levitt found that sportsbooks can consciously exploit the desire of bettors to back the favourite team by giving bettors on that team poorer odds. The cognitive processes and strategies used by customers in selecting bets should be examined in future research. Multi-bets represented a significant portion of bets, but customers tended to bet lower amounts than for wins and places, perhaps suggesting that they may be less confident in the outcome.
This strategy may be appropriate given that multi-bets resulted in the highest proportion of losses. The lowest average bets were for exotic bets, which also had a relatively low standard deviation, indicating that most customers wagered small amounts on these bets, which are based on very specific outcomes.
Again, unsurprisingly, the vast majority of exotic bets resulted in losses, suggesting that low bets are appropriate, although the returns for these bets were more favourable than for wins, as these bets typically have good payout rates if successful. Lower amounts were generally placed on each way bets, which may be due to the lower odds typically offered for these bets, so players do not have the same opportunity to win large payouts.
Correspondingly, each way bets had a lower proportion of losses, likely related to the greater number of outcomes to result in a winning bet. Each way bets may be more popular with risk-averse bettors, who would be happy with small outcomes, but reduced losses. This perceived insurance may lead some bettors to place an each way bet instead of taking the risk of either a win smaller chance of a higher return or place higher chance of a smaller return and thus engaging in a bet when they would not do so if the each way option were not available.
Of interest, the more specific handicap and total bets were placed by few customers, but these represented the largest average bets and the greatest return to players, although there was also large variation in these results. On average, half of the place and handicap bets made resulted in wins, in contrast to all other types of wagers. These results are quite significant as they suggest that it is possible for bettors to come out ahead.
Customers who made these types of bets may have greater knowledge and understanding of specific races and the factors that affect outcomes and subsequently be more successful with their bets. Alternatively, they may be more astute in finding bets with favourable odds. These results are consistent with the findings from an analysis of another Australian wagering operator, which found that a small proportion of bettors were able to minimise their losses Gainsbury et al.
This study did not investigate the type of bets made by the more successful bettors, nor did the work by La Brie and colleagues There is evidence of subgroups in the heterogeneous population of bettors, including demonstrated differences in betting behaviour and performance between recreational and professional bettors Bruce et al.
Bets placed on races tended to be smaller on average compared to other events. However, those betting on races tended to lose more money per bet, on average, than all other forms of betting apart from mixed bets. This may reflect the interest in race betting as an entertainment activity rather than an expectation of consistent winning or positive returns.
In relation to sports betting, bet outlays and outcomes differed between the types of event bet on, indicating that customers had different betting strategies for different events. Mixed bets placed on multiple sporting events were the least successful, which is not surprising as a greater number of successful predictions are required to win.
This may explain the relatively few bets placed on these events and lower bet outlay compared to other sports. Football bets were on average significantly smaller and less successful than bets placed on non-football ball sports. Soccer, Rugby League, and Australian Rules games appear to be particularly difficult to predict, judging from the lower returns. In contrast, bets on Rugby Union, had a positive return on average, although over half still resulted in losses, perhaps suggesting that some astute customers were able to identify more favourable odds for rugby union matches and subsequently won large amounts, impacting the overall average results.
An alternative explanation may be that events in which outcomes are more difficult to pick have less favourable odds, given no clear likely winner, resulting in a lower proportion of returns. Given the absence of prior studies examining types of bets made on sports events and the outcomes of these, including the motivations of bettors, interpretation of these results requires some caution until further research can be conducted.
Similar to the outcome of more specialised racing bet types, bets placed on less popular events, i. Wagers placed on basketball, baseball, and ice hockey had a lower proportion of losses than football bets. Similarly, tennis, basketball, cricket and ice hockey bets had the greatest average returns not including rugby union and other ball sports , although these were still losses on average.
However, there was also relatively high variability in results indicating that the outcomes of bets on these events are not consistent. Because betting on these events is less popular, these events may be subject to less scrutiny and research by the bookmaker. Novelty events include bets placed on the outcome of elections and entertainment or popular events, such as who will win the latest reality television show.
Few bets were placed on these events, which is unsurprising as these are generally intended to be non-serious bets that are provided for interest and novelty value. However, novelty bets had the highest returns.
As the -fication suffix implies, gamblification is a process that of expanding the areas of sport susceptible to being gamble upon, which has been further accelerated by the nearly simultaneous legalisation and popularisation of Internet gambling in different jurisdictions Gainsbury et al.
In the decade since the gamblification of sport theory was proposed, the term has evolved from its original meaning. Sport gamblification is no longer restricted by the limits of sports betting and sport per se. On the contrary, it has developed multiple interactions with adjacent markets. Aligning with a broader context of technological integration of gambling products, as seen in the convergence of gambling and social gaming Cassidy ; Griffiths et al.
Sports betting convergences—most notably with trading markets, such as foreign exchange forex or FX , poker, and daily fantasy games Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths b —have been further facilitated by the evolution of big data retrieval from sports events Hutchins Such developments in sports data retrieval include traditional visual methods, as well as newer motion-tracking cameras, smart sensors embedded in equipment, wearables, and body response tracking devices Marr Sport organisations have capitalised on the convergence dynamic by signing formal financial agreements with gambling firms Hing et al.
The convergence of gambling, trading, and gaming markets calls for such an extended understanding of what constitutes gambling today, particularly in the way gambling harm-minimisation and responsible marketing campaigns are designed. A major preoccupation regarding gambling intersection with sports has been the marketing of betting as an experience inherently associated with the symbolic culture of sport Deans et al. In this regard, and of great concern, is the effect that an excessive volume of betting marketing might have on vulnerable groups such as minors and young adults Pitt et al.
Furthermore, additional issues might arise in the event that these new categories that extend the definition of sports gambling i. The present paper tackles the extended definition of the gamblification of sport by using sponsorship and partnership deals of gambling, forex trading, and fantasy gaming as a proxy for assessing their environmental impact.
The study is constructed in the form of a conceptual paper that i explores the legal framework and ii marketing evolution of gambling in English football, iii combining it with new descriptive evidence from sponsorship and partnership deals, to finally iv speculate on the detrimental consequences that such marketing might have, based on the existing literature on betting marketing-related harm. Gambling operators can legally market online and offline products in the UK provided they are licensed to do so by the Gambling Commission, the regulatory body created after the Gambling Act The gambling industry regards the UK as the most developed gambling regulatory system in Europe Danson However, gambling is still regarded—at least in social and economic terms—as a demerit good, in the same vein as tobacco or alcohol, and therefore subject to above average taxation in an attempt to counterbalance the negative effects of its consumption.
Such mixed understanding of gambling as a legal, tax-collecting, but at the same time demerit activity transpires in the law in the form of regulatory requirements that some scholars have come to label as hypocritical Myllymaa The responsibility of controlling sports betting marketing and advertising in the UK lies on a multi-node network operating under the Gambling Act and the Gambling Licensing and Advertising Act Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths a.
The Gambling Commission, as noted above, is the regulatory body responsible for issuing licenses and regulating gambling activity. Moreover, the Office of Communications Ofcom protects British consumers from promotions that could be harmful or offensive. Additionally, the gambling industry complements the existing legal framework with self-regulatory codes. The Gambling Commission stipulates that free bet promotions must include in the advert itself any condition or factor that might affect the bets, such as withdrawal requirements.
This follows up on the ASA guidance, in response to an increasing number of complaints by bettors concerning the misleading terms of many gambling products advertised as risk-free or simply free Committee of Advertising Practice and Broadcast Committee of Advertising Practice Given the rise of foreign gambling operators following sport sponsorship marketing strategies in British football, the Gambling Commission released a one-page advice note in November to clarify its position on it.
Sport and gambling organisations materialise their shared interests by signing partnership and sponsorship deals, either at competition level i. In French sport, where this rule has been enforced, sports organisers with fixtures covered by bookmakers received 1.
However, beyond the legal standpoint, sport competitions have arguably few incentives to pursue legal action and be at odds with gambling industry, considering the lucrative sponsorship and partnership deals that a profitable relationship with betting firms has brought to them. Trading and fantasy gaming partnerships with sports industry have not attracted similar public scrutiny and there is no provision that specifically addresses their use in the context of sports betting marketing and advertising.
Marketing and advertising expenditure growth in the UK mirrors that of several European and overseas countries that—since the legalisation of online gambling in early s—have witnessed a surge of gambling inducements European Commission In , sports betting adverts accounted for approximately 0. Although the causal link between advertising expenditure and gambling engagement is not easy to establish, industry data provided by the Gambling Commission suggests a parallel evolution Gambling Commission For example, when considering the non-remote betting gross yield i.
This evolution represents a relatively modest In European sporting leagues as a whole, shirt sponsorships in the top five football markets i. According to latest free-access data from the European Sponsorship Association reported by Foley-Train, gambling operators ranked seventh of all business sectors for worldwide sport sponsorship deals in 74 deals , tripling the deals made in 21 deals.
Shirt sponsorship is probably a good proxy to calibrate the volume of gambling marketing in English football. First team shirt sponsorship with gambling companies evolved from four deals in , six deals in , to ten deals in , accounting for half of the 20 English Premier League teams.
Clearly, the number of shirt logos owned by gambling brands has evolved rapidly over a relatively short period of time. However, some industry voices have been anticipating a decline in the numbers of shirts being sponsored by gambling firms due to their incapacity to compete with other business sectors Gillooly , although such a decline has yet to materialise. In the same vein, it has been noted that most of the football teams with shirts sponsored by gambling companies are among the less powerful in the league, both in terms of economic profitability and sporting success.
Indeed, analysing the data from end-of-season table positions demonstrates a bias of gambling companies sponsoring teams towards the lower end of the table. In —, the six teams sponsored by gambling companies finished 10th, 11th, 13th, 16th, 18th, and 20th.
This could be interpreted as a nuanced strategy. More specifically, gambling operators might believe they have enough global exposure that the league as whole offers, without needing to pay premium sponsorship deals to attach their brand to the most supported and successful teams because all the lower ranked teams have to play all the upper ranked teams and therefore get equal advertising exposure during televised games.
Table 2 shows the breadth of the gamblification process by focusing on sponsorship deals during the — season in the English Premier League. As can be observed, all 20 teams have secured at least one official betting partner, with some of them having multiple partners due to regional deals in strategic markets to provide the so-called geo-targeted betting experiences Garlitos Altogether, the 20 English Premier League teams totalled 20 different betting brands, with 12 brands sponsoring only one team, five brands sponsoring two teams, and three brands sponsoring three different teams.
Despite how fragmented the betting market might look, these brands represent only a small fraction of the actual number operating in association with the English football. In fact, betting brands are generally considered to offer poorly differentiated products in highly competitive markets Nettleton Consequently, marketing plays a significant part in artificially creating singular attributes that facilitate the acquisition and maintenance of customers.
Sponsorship deals with trading companies are not as prevalent as betting sponsorships. Only one trader EZTrader sponsors two different teams, while the rest are unique sponsors. The same betting market attributes of low product differentiation and competitive environment might also be applicable to trading firms. Fantasy gaming is rapidly becoming a large component of sports appreciation, especially in the USA where fantasy sports appears to have partially absorbed the consumer base for online sports betting, an illegal activity in most states Bowman et al.
The concentration of brands here is slightly higher than in the case of betting and trading sponsorships, but six different brands still populate the growing fantasy gaming market in the English Premier League. The detrimental effect on public health of an increase in the sports betting marketing volume is difficult to demonstrate.
British data collected by the Gambling Commission is inconclusive due to the lack of definition of what constitutes gambling on sports. In general, research has found it difficult to substantiate the causal association between gambling advertising exposure and behaviour, particularly when the effects of such exposure might take place weeks or months later, as proposed, for instance, by the Cultivation Theory Gerbner Despite the difficulties of finding empirical evidence of the real impact of marketing on betting behaviour, many authors have acknowledged that the association between marketing and problem gambling is plausible, at least theoretically.
However, considering the increasing amount of money allocated to gambling advertising, it appears conceivable that British operators find an attractive return of investment to their advertising expenditure. The sports betting marketing and advertising growth prompted by the gamblification of sport could be theorised as having two effects. First, an increase in gambling advertising exposure might be associated with a higher prevalence rate of problem gambling.
A study indicated that problem gamblers are usually more exposed to advertising e. However, a study conducted among Norwegian gamblers found that problem gamblers had a greater involvement with gambling advertising even when they were similarly exposed than regular non-problem gamblers Hanss et al.
It is worth noting that available data from the UK shows no indication that gambling advertising has led to more gambling harm. For the period of greatest gambling advertising growth — , the problem gambling prevalence rate in Scotland stayed relatively stable, moving from 0. The latest data from England dates back to ; therefore, the impact if any on public health of online betting adoption due to the rise in gambling advertising is as yet unknown.
Second, an overall rise in the consumption of gambling products following more aggressive marketing strategies, even while maintaining a stable percentage of people experiencing gambling-related harm, would lead to a rise in absolute numbers of people developing gambling problems Hansen and Rossow Simply put, keeping problem gambling rate constant, the more people that bet on sports, the more problem gamblers.
This is known as the total consumption model. Some scholars have criticised this model by arguing that sports betting marketing does not necessarily create new consumers, and that it only affects market share, transferring existing bettors from one bookmaker to another Hing Other scholars support social adaptation models e.
Shaffer et al. Some of the most notable aspects of gambling marketing are its ubiquity and penetration. Gamblers have repeatedly described commercial stimuli to bet as being everywhere Pitt et al. In this regard, the specific messages or narratives that are conveyed by such stimuli do not appear to be as crucial as the accumulative presence of the stimuli.
Sproston et al. Some authors have examined the outreach of specific brands, describing how they structure traditional and social media channels to position their products in every market Sproston et al. Other studies have examined the combined gambling impact an individual views during in an individual sport event.
In the Australian National Rugby League NRL in , a spectator watching a game was targeted an average of times with gambling stimuli Lindsay et al. The aggregation of marketing strategies over long periods of time has raised concerns regarding the naturalisation or normalisation of gambling on sports over the long term Deans et al. The naturalisation effect is especially concerning in the case of children and adolescents, but also in the case of young adults, with insufficient historical perspective to compare the current betting context against previous periods where the union of sport and gambling was not so pervasively emphasised by betting marketers.
Other forms of gambling have prompted children to think in the past that gambling can be a tool for self-expression and rebelliousness Korn et al. If the association between gambling and sport becomes fully naturalised, gambling is likely to integrate among its core components the perceived positive attributes of contemporary sport. Here, the present authors provide a tentative list of some of these components:. The role of those practicing sport is active, their actions being the ones determining the outcome of any game.
Sport is based on talent. The role of chance is inversely proportional to the amount of skill teams or individuals can achieve. Sport is based on preparation and work. It is a practice that can be mastered with sufficient training, self-commitment, and discipline Milner et al. Being merit-based, those who have not succeeded have only themselves to blame, considering the equal opportunities the system allows. Sport stars represent the story of successful risk-takers that bet against the odds, given the unlikelihood of becoming a professional player, but prevailed in the end.
Sport is a manifestation of masculinity and control Anderson ; Whannel Sport is safe, harmless, and promotes healthy behaviours McMullan and Miller The following section explores the potential dangers of the transference of meaning from each sport characteristic listed above into the remit of gambling, trading, and fantasy gaming. In stark contrast, contemporary betting marketing highlights the active role of bettors and the way mobile technologies can be used to enhance the control over the betting experience, and implicitly, over the bet outcome itself Lopez-Gonzalez et al.
The development of betting interfaces towards more involved experiences featuring more options for bettors to interact with the ongoing bets e. This development might punctuate a transition towards a more comprehensive convergence of betting and gaming businesses.
Furthermore, it also brings to life the idea that in sports betting, training, knowledge, experience, and skills separate those who win from those who lose. Betting marketing emphasises the idea that all the relevant data to inform bets is accessible for bettors, either in the form of data, statistics, or media reports. It follows that betting is a rational activity that comprises the analysis of available information that, if done diligently, yields profits.
Fantasy gaming is a good example of this. Fantasy sports are legal in the USA, despite the prohibition of online gambling in the country, because companies have been successful to date in arguing at court cases that their products are based on acts of skill, not chance Rose Similarly, trading is also based on the assumption that the chance component can be mastered with enough training and experience.
Marketing campaigns overestimate the role of skill while underestimating the importance of luck , encouraging gamblers to persevere in their skill acquisition. This is relevant in the case of children, because their cognitive skills are still developing, and problem gamblers, who often have distortions and biases in their cognitive processing Ciccarelli et al. Being a trader is perceived to be a job, and it is defined in the Cambridge Dictionary as a person who buys or sells company shares or money, whereas in the same dictionary, a gambler is defined as a person who risks money.
The juxtaposition of gambling and trading, by means of sport, is likely to transfer some of the connotations of professional, business-oriented task of trading to the gambling realm. This juxtaposition is furthered by sport stars, who also add the business component to something that was primarily meant to be an entertainment. Trading borrows from sport the attributes of speed, immediacy, precision, and technological innovation, which is why Formula 1 car racing has been an ideal target competition for forex companies Pearson The preponderance of those same attributes of speed and precision could also help to explain the selection of Usain Bolt, the eight-time Olympic gold medallist sprinter, as a brand ambassador for the XM Forex company in Dudley The symbolic association of gambling and trading via sports makes gambling depart even further from being considered a game of chance, focusing on the components of skill, knowledge, and analysis.
Trading is likely to be an environment of extreme competition, which translates into greater risk of losing the invested money. However, in contrast to such negative characterisation, trading marketing via sports, frames competition as positive, involving a symbolic understanding of trading that entails elements such as the survival of the fittest, the thrill of taking risks, while curtailing any moral obligations caused by irresponsible trading.
In close relation to this, the building up of masculinity has therefore been proposed as a mechanism used by gambling advertising to induce riskier betting behaviour Thomas et al. Arguably, trading also builds on recklessness positively framed as controlled risk-taking to construct traders and gamblers to the image of sports stars, borrowing characteristics from them such as instinctive behaviour, decisiveness, and on-the-go decision-making.
Recent research in the UK has shown that bookmakers manage greater profit margins when presenting bettors with multiple outcome bets whose risk and winning probability is hard to calculate accurately Newall , In addition, elite football evokes a life of affluence.
Sport stars often represent stories of working class people who become millionaires almost overnight, typically in their early 20s Smart In that sense, sport enacts narratives of easy money and strikes of luck, and an association in the mind of quick money. The contention here is that the extended gambling definition proposed in this paper does not happen in isolation, and that the convergence of gambling, gaming, and trading businesses is more likely to evolve in an atmosphere saturated by other inducements to play with money.
However, unlike other forms of gambling, sport confers betting the attributes of healthiness, safety, and harmlessness McMullan and Miller This association is reinforced inasmuch as sports betting becomes more gamified, symbolically departing from more obscure gambling connotations into areas of social perception characterised by playfulness and entertainment. Playing is by definition non-serious and entails a world of reparable consequences, as the betting marketing of free bets and guaranteed money-back offers appear to imply.
The gamification of gambling Owens adds to the active role of bettors, enhancing their perception of control over the outcome of their bets, with fantasy gaming being a by-product of such evolution. An interpretation of the marketing rationale for the alliance of forex trading companies with sport organisations is the strategy of transferring ludic components from sports domains to re-frame trading as a harmless and entertaining activity.
Take as an illustrative example the following inducement made by FX Primus , trading partner of English Premier League football club Manchester City until , as advertised in their website:. This short inducement summarises many of the points made already in the present paper and exemplifies what irresponsible marketing of trading might look like.
Second, it presents trading as an activity that has no negative consequences, in which people engage just for the sake of fun. Third, it draws on the emotional relationship of fans with their sports and teams to evoke a similar feeling in trading.
The present paper has argued for an extended definition of sport gamblification, exploring the relatively new phenomena of forex trading and fantasy gaming as an expansion of the remit of sports gambling. Using the English Football Premier League as a case study, the paper examined the potential harm involved in the association of sport with gambling and its adjacent industries i.
There is a wide consensus that sports betting marketing and advertising must be regulated, and is the case in most jurisdictions including the UK. However, there is no specific protection concerning the marketing of trading and fantasy gaming as a specific product category associated with sports.
Here, it has been contended that such association is not trivial, and that the symbolic linkage of sport and these newer gambling forms can become an issue of public health, especially affecting vulnerable groups such as minors and problem gamblers. The present paper explored shirt sponsorship and official partnerships as a proxy for assessing the volume and penetration of sports gamblification.
Although there is no scientific evidence that these marketing agreements are actually having a detrimental effect on the aforementioned vulnerable groups, it has been argued that it makes theoretical sense to think that they might potentially cause harm among some individuals. Consequently, the current online gambling restrictions should expand, in the same vein as the definition of gambling, to protect consumers from irresponsible marketing in general and the inadequate association of sport and gambling in particular.
Advertising Standards Authority. London: Advertising Standards Authority. Google Scholar. Anderson, E. The maintenance of masculinity among the stakeholders of sport. Sport Management Review, 12 1 , 3— Asser Institute. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Report of the French online gaming regulatory authority on the betting right. Bestman, A. BMC Public Health, 15 , Binde, P. Gambling advertising: a critical research review.
London: Responsible Gambling Trust. Bowman, N. Fantasy sports and the changing sports media industry: media, players, and society. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. Cambridge Dictionary Cassidy, R.
Partial convergence: social gaming and real-money gambling. Cassidy, A. Loussouarn Eds. New York: Routledge. Ciccarelli, M. Decision making, cognitive distortions and emotional distress: a comparison between pathological gamblers and healthy controls. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 54 , — Guidance on the rules for gambling advertisements.
Danson, A. Sponsorship by gambling companies in the UK and Europe: the opportunities and challenges. Journal of Sponsorship, 3 2 , — Davies, R. Betting firms spent half a billion pounds on TV adverts since Deans, E. Creating symbolic cultures of consumption: an analysis of the content of sports wagering advertisements in Australia.
BMC Public Health, 16 1 , The role of peer influences on the normalisation of sports wagering: a qualitative study of Australian men. The influence of marketing on the sports betting attitudes and consumption behaviours of young men: implications for harm reduction and prevention strategies. Harm Reduction Journal, 14 1 , 5. Gasto promocional de juego online. Madrid: DGOJ. Dudley, G. Dyall, L. Cultural icons and marketing of gambling. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7 , 84— The economic synergy between sports and sports betting.
EGBA News, 19 , 1—4.
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|1st betting book gambling c major sport sports||Furthermore, it also brings to life the idea that in sports betting, training, knowledge, experience, cryptocurrency investment skills separate those who win from those who lose. Downloadable from the ICC here. This is relevant in the case of children, because their cognitive skills are still developing, and problem gamblers, who often have distortions and biases in their cognitive processing Ciccarelli et al. Mountaineer Casino is the 3rd sportsbook to go live on Nov. About this article. Pittsburgh's most recent World Series win came in Mountaineer Casino, Racetrack and Resort.|
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Las Vegas is singlehandedly responsible for making sports betting so popular in America and the rest of the world. The Super Bowl has been happening every year since and sports bettors have been wagering on the Big Game ever since.
As sports betting changed, so did the way players placed action on the Super Bowl. Las Vegas became a major hub for tourism every year during the Big Game so that sports bettors in other states could bet on the Super Bowl. Now almost two dozen states offer sports betting, giving Super Bowl betting access to more players than ever. When you fast forward to the 21st century, sports betting in the US looks dramatically different than it did in centuries prior.
Sports bettors are able to bet on every sport imaginable, from football and basketball to tennis and golf and more. The point spread was introduced more than 50 years ago, but there are now a variety of straight and exotic wagers that bettors have become accustomed to.
The advent of the Internet also changed how sports fans could wager, making betting on sports much more accessible. With Nevada being the only state offering single-game wagering, sports enthusiasts had very limited options when it came to safely placing bets. In the early s, online sportsbooks began appearing all over the US market and became the norm for betting on sports. No matter where a bettor was located, they would be able to find Vegas-style sports betting action from the comfort of their home.
Just as the spread of sports betting signaled the US government to step in and stop expansion, the same incident occurred as online sports betting increased in popularity. Signed into law on October 13, , by then-President George W. Bush, the UIGEA is an act that prevents certain payment instruments from being used for online gambling transactions. The FDIC requires certain US financial institutions to monitor and restrict certain designated payment systems that include credit cards, checks, and wire transfers.
Though the law does not make online sports betting illegal, nor does it punish bettors in any way, the UIGEA did cause many online sports betting sites to leave the US market. Still, there are plenty of sports betting sites that safely serve USA sports bettors. All of the sites are based offshore, in locations like Costa Rica and Panama where remote gaming is legal. These sites are licensed and regulated to accept US players even without being physically located in the States.
As they operate outside of US jurisdiction, they are free to post odds, accept wagers, and send payouts to America residents. Twenty-six of the 50 states have some form of legal sports betting market, including Washington DC. Some of these states have not yet launched their industries while others are operating through Tribal Gaming Compacts without going through further discussions with the government on the matter as they are classifying sports betting as Class III gaming which they are entitled to offer their patrons through their current compacts.
The activity of sports betting is seeing history in the making in the United States every day with more and more states wanting to get in on the action. After PASPA was overturned on May 14, , seven states legalized and launched sports betting within just the first six months. Two of those states—New Jersey and Pennsylvania—now have sports betting industries that handle several billion dollars a year in wagers.
Dozens of states have now either legalized or introduced legislation for regulated sports betting. Even a global pandemic was unable to prevent more states from legalizing sports betting, as Virginia, Washington, and Oklahoma all paved the way for legal sports betting after the coronavirus pandemic hit the U.
Sports betting, in addition to high rates of voter approval, is an excellent industry for generating tax revenue. With the ongoing budgetary crisis faced by many states, legalizing sports betting is a fast and easy way to increase tax revenues to cover some of that shortfall. Sports betting has changed immensely since its start in the dark shadows before becoming a legal industry. The beginnings of a real market occurred using newspapers and word of mouth by people in sports circles.
This would lead to a face to face interaction where gamblers would fill out a betting slip and have the clerk take their bets. Of course, this still happens, even more now that states are legalizing sports betting throughout the nation, but the consensus is that the majority of handle from gambling on sporting events comes from mobile sportsbook applications. Technology and modernization will continue to take over the industry. There will always be land-based sportsbooks but down the line, there may not be as many as there are now with the growth and popularity of alternative platforms to gamble on the games.
Venues for sports wagering could turn into that random Redbox terminal seen around today but in comparison with how many are around right now so, there will still be plenty of venues to frequent. The history of sports betting continues making new slips to add to its book every day as new innovations are introduced.
Legal online sports betting websites have been operating for over two decades now. They became extremely popular in the late s and early s at the same time that the internet became a dominant part of our daily lives. While many of the domestic sites ceased operation in , offshore online sportsbooks have continued to serve Americans since their inception over 20 years ago. The reason mainly stems from federal restrictions on sports betting.
PASPA was first signed in and it banned any state from legalizing sports betting until it was repealed in Because the legislative process takes time, states are only just now slowly considering and enacting new provisions for this activity. Nevada opened the first legal sportsbook back in When PASPA was put into place in , Nevada was essentially grandfathered into the law because it already had its own rules in place for sports betting.
Other states like Montana, Oregon, and Delaware were also grandfathered into the law but only Nevada had traditional single-game wagering. Since then 17 states have taken the initiative to pass a sports betting bill and sign it into law. Many other states considered the topic during their last legislative session but did not pass a bill.
They are expected to do it again, especially now that neighboring states have an edge in their gambling industry. Because of the repeal of PASPA, legal sports betting can come to your state whenever the state lawmakers pass the legislation. Through to his career as a full time sports bettor. Along the way Veitch became a target for extortion from a dangerous criminal who later would go on to be tried for murder.
Veitch never reveals his betting methods or goes on to write about how he was able to consistently find value in the horse betting markets. However the book does detail how he ran his betting operation and was able to get down large amounts of money at bookmakers all across the country. If you are interested in sports betting and particularly the horse racing markets then Enemy Number One is a recommended read.
It is based on trading the stock market however a lot information provided is this book can be applied to sports betting and sports trading very well. This book tackles the psychology behind good and bad trading. It is often regarded as the bible when it comes to books on trading psychology. Douglas teaches that discipline and controlling the variables that you are able to. Are the key factors in what makes a profitable trader sports bettor.
If you are looking for a book that can you help you understand the psychological traits behind being a successful sports bettor then Trading In The Zone is a good choice. For book number five we return to author Joseph Buchdahl. Fixed Odds Sports Betting was written in but still holds up as one of the best sports betting books around.
Buchdahl was a former bet runner for the previously mentioned Patrick Veitch and in looking to emulate him has spent a huge amount time collecting sports betting data. Looking for ways in which to profit from the sports betting markets. Fixed Odds Sports Betting aims to teach its readers the fundamentals of bookmaking. It takes a thorough mathematical look at sports betting with an in depth look at various staking plans. This book is an excellent introduction to sports betting for novice bettors.
Whilst also appealing to experienced bettors looking to get a better grasp on some of the key fundamentals behind investing in sports betting. Looking to make money from the sports betting markets. Check out our recommendations below. Are you sure about this Findlay guy? Guys is a suicidal madman. Well you can probably take away a few thins not to do from that book.
Your right his bankroll management was crazy at times. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
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